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Full text of "About advertising and printing. A concise, practical, and original manual on the art of local advertising"

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' To folks who live on printers' ink. 






Manager of Advertising and Printing Departments of Pope Manufacturing Co., Columbia Bicycles. 



54 Pearl Street. 




" The many things amongst as many pages.' 


Generally - 

What ? 1 1 


Circulation and Rates 



Writing 47 

Puffs 53 

Outdoors 70 







Novel 100 

Quotations 107 

Holiday 112 

Window Dressing and Store Decoration ,, ... 115 

Samples 121 

Technics ijS 

Copyright, i838, 

Press of 

/.. Hart a <5t* Co 



" To the point, perhaps, and covering lots of ground." 

Advertising is a distinct art, as much so as the art of coal mining or 
of engine building. To be a successful advertiser one must at least under- 
stand the rudiments of that science which to-day is so little studied and so 
little understood. 

Any one can write an advertisement, and almost any one can write it to 
please the advertiser; but often the advertisement which is so gratifying 
to the writer will hardly attract a passing notice from the possible customer. 
Whether or not the advertisement be pleasing to the pride of the writer 
or advertiser is a question of small' consideration, but vital importance 
hinges upon the capacity of the advertisement to attract the people, and, 
by .attracting them, gain their intelligent attention, which, once obtained, 
must force the gist of the advertisement into their minds, and, if they be 
available customers to the line advertised, impress upon them the wisdom 
of an inspection of the goods advertised. 

Few advertisements sell goods directly. The burden upon an adver- 
tisement is to draw attention to the store, or to the articles there for sale, 
teaching the first lesson in prospective purchasing. The advertisement 
brings people to the store, and there its mission stops ; — then success in 
selling depends upon the quality of the goods, the price, and the salesman. 
But let me emphatically say here that, in the evolution of selling, to the 
medium which brings the possible customer to the store or place of 
business, furnishing the always difficult to forge connecting link between 



buyer and seller, is due half the credit of the sale ; and the world over, 
inventive genius has not devised a substitute for legitimate advertising. 

One advertisement well written and well displayed is worth a dozen 
indifferently made up advertisements. Effective advertising is always 
distinctive, sharp, short, pointed, and, above all, original. 

An advertisement should be a public announcement of a fact. A 
misleading advertisement never paid in the long run, and seldom in the 
short run. Customers are not fools in any community. When told by a 
flaming advertisement that dollar goods are to be sold for a quarter, they 
begin a mental calculation, and will, ten chances to one, figure it out that 
the advertiser lied twice as much as he really did. 

If the advertisement depart from the truth at all, let it be in under- 
estimating the true value of the goods advertised ; indeed, it is good policy 
to occasionally misrepresent in this direction, creating, as it generally 
does, a healthy surprise on the part of the purchaser, resulting in increased 
confidence, and setting in circulation a sort of mouth-to-mouth advertise- 
ment, which, when influenced in the right direction, is one of the things 
to be encouraged. 

Avoid the everlasting typographical harangue about bargains. The 
public is thoroughly tired of reading about that which doesn't often exist, 
and is seldom recognized when it does. Nobody has the slightest confidence 
in a bargain store, — the name itself is a libel on truthfulness. 

The old phrase of " less than cost " has helped to cost many a man his 
reputation and business. No sensible merchant does business on that 
basis, and printed claims that he does so are transparent lies, pure and 
simple ; and the public, be it ever so ignorant, scents a printed lie, the 
more so when it is surrounded by a nest of misleading, extravagant 

Bargains arc the clicstnuts of trade, and less-than-cost goods parodies 
on nothing. 

Business is done to make money ; everybody knows it ; and it is useless 
to attempt to deny principles of trade where there is not a glimmer of a 


chance of its being believed. A truthful advertisement is worth a value 
in any market ; a falsifying one is a business boomerang, bringing loss 
at the rebound. 

Do not copy neighbors' ideas. Each advertisement should be new 
and fresh, and it is well to preserve an identity in all of them easily 
recognizable as peculiar to the advertiser. 

An advertisement is a public and perfectly refined and legitimate 
invitation from the dealer to everybody ; it assures a cordial welcome to 
the visitor; it is an infallible sign of business, enterprise, and life. 

If the advertisement should have the appearance of cordiality, let the 
reception to the would-be customer be made more so. The store which 
advertises places itself under printed obligations to the public, and should 
be ever vigilant of that which is due the guest within its doors. 

The dealer may not be recognized within the self-made portals of the 
local aristocracy, his circulars through the medium of the mail may remain 
unopened ; but his money can buy a place within the pages of the local 
paper, and his name and trade will force respectful attention if his 
announcements be carefully arranged. 

There is no stratum of society not reached and influenced by adver- 
tising. The bluest blue-blooded descendant of the oldest family, who 
prides himself upon his impenetrability from things common and com- 
monly, is affected, and proves that he is by saying that he isn't. In no 
town where there is a newspaper can there exist an impregnable spot. 

Many an unsuccessful merchant claims and believes that advertising 
does not pay people in general, and himself in particular, and from his 
experience he speaks seemingly reasonable truth. His advertising did 
not pay. So might the farmer complain that his poor seed brought no 
harvest. The fault was in the farmer and the seed, not in the principles 
of agriculture. Advertising does pay, and will pay ; but the advertiser 
must make it pay. 

Advertising is not an experiment, nor is it a business side issue; it is 
a part of the paraphernalia of business necessity, to be studied and 


experimented upon as one studies and experiments upon the other depart- 
ments of the business house. If it does not pay, it is simply because it is 
misdirected. The colossal fortunes of trade, particularly of the retail 
trade, have been made, and are today being made, with advertising 
recognized as one of the important and essential factors of the success. 

Advertise goods, not the men who sell them. The public care about 
the reputation of the firm, and that is about all ; beyond that the firm 
name is but a name of place. That which is advertised attracts and holds 
attention. If one-half of the space is used for the firm's name, nine- 
tenths of that half is wasted. The name and address at the bottom, in 
small, clear letters, give the personal information ; it should not be a part 
of the advertisement proper, simply a necessary finish at the end. 

It is easy to lose money by poor advertising, just as easy as it is to 
lose money through any other blundering movement; and as advertising 
is one of the recognized departments of business, it is as easy to make 
money by it as to make money out of the proper conduction of any other 
part of the business. The intelligent, shrewd attention which is given to 
selling should include advertising. 

Generally speaking, spasmodic advertising is as silly as spasmodic 
eating. To expect a single advertisement to pay is as foolish as to hope 
to grow fat from the spoils of one dinner. 

Persistent advertising is absolutely necessary to success. The sub- 
stance of a year's advertising cannot be done up into a single ball, and 
fired at one loading. The advertiser whose advertisement appears to-day 
and is out to-morrow, generally is out of trade both days. The man who 
expects to put ten dollars into an advertisement and get it back before the 
ink is dry upon the paper which holds it, is as badly deceived as is the one 
who depends upon getting his money for the season's crops before the 
tops are an inch out of the ground. The benefits of advertising are 
indirect more than direct. 

Do not begin to advertise unless it be the intention to stick to it for 
three months at least. The first month will tell the people that the 


advertiser is somewhere; the second month, that he is doing business 
and has something to sell ; the third month, that he is worth calling upon. 
If it be expected that a single month's advertising will do any real good, 
somebody is mistaken, except in exceptional exceptions. 

Prosperous advertising means regular continuous advertising. The 
stopping of an advertisement, even for a while, brings a liability of 
counteracting the success already acquired during the time the advertise- 
ment was running. 

To take the advertisement out of the paper during the so-called dull 
times is about as bad as to stop feeding the horse because the present 
weather is unsuitable for using him. 

The dull season is often the most advantageous time to push the trade ; 
and here the influence of advertising is strongly felt. 
y^ If there be nothing particularly new to advertise, there is not a 
particle of need of temporarily withdrawing the advertisement. Develop 
ingenuity, dust up the old things, make them look like new, put life into 
the business, strike for trade, advertise, make trade lively by being lively. 
Any ordinary man can sell goods when folks want to buy. The total 
profit on the balance sheet at the end of the year depends largely upon 
the sales of the so-called dull season. There is no dull season in a live 


Do not infer that I believe that all lines of trade should give the same 
attention and amount to advertising the year around, for it certainly 
would be foolish for the manufacturer of ice-skates to push his retail 
business during the iceless days ; or for the base ball maker to try to sell 
his wares when the ball ground is white with snow. I refer solely to the 
alleged dull season when general trade is generally said to be generally 

• dull. 

There are few lines of trade, however, which can afford to entirely 
withdraw the advertising during any part of the year. While the so-called 
out-of-season advertising is pretty certain not to assist direct sales, it is 
generally advantageous to run a moderate sized card throughout the 


year; for it is seldom safe policy to give the public the slightest opportunity 
to forget the advertiser, even during the non-purchasing season. Economy 
in advertising is to be practised, but economy does not mean annihilation. 

All being equal, the larger the advertisement, the more it will be read ; 
but an attractive, well-written, small advertisement will do more good than 
a poorly-written one of three times its size. In advertising, both quality 
and quantity count, especially the former. 

Lack of competition is no excuse for lack of advertising. The store 
which is fortunate or unfortunate enough to be the only one of its class in 
town, has need of advertising to inform the public that it exists at all ; and 
persistent, liberal advertising is one of the best preventatives for coming 

A merchant expects to sell say twenty-five thousand dollars' worth of 
merchandise in a year, at a profit of twenty per cent., or five thousand 
dollars. His expenses amount to half of it, giving a net profit of twenty- 
five hundred dollars. It is perfectly reasonable to presume that from fifty 
to one hundred per cent, more business can be done, if trade can be 
secured, without proportionately increasing the expenses. 

Good business principles will allow a large percentage for the obtaining 
of additional trade. A part of the prospective gain must be paid for in 
printer's ink. Advertise, and always invest a good proportion of the 
extra profit in additional advertising. 

Advertising is casting business bread upon the business waters, which 
returns in business profits ; perhaps not every time ; but in the philosophy 
of the mercantile sea the tide of profit as often flows as it ebbs, and 
printer's ink is the only oil which can stay the breaking of a panicky wave. 


" Of what so many people want, if they but knew about it." 

Anything which will sell, particularly if it be sold at retail, can be 
advantageously advertised. Everybody reads, everybody buys. The 
proportion of space and money to be used depends entirely upon the 
article, the class of people who buy it, and the quality and quantity of the 
purchasing field. 

This chapter is sub-divided into trade classifications simply for con- 

What is said under any classification applies more or less to all of the 
others, and the entire contents of the book are intended to apply to every trade 
and profession. This chapter is then presented as a sort of explanatory 
index to assist in ntilizing the general substance of the book. 

The classifications include the majority of the leading lines of retail 
trade, and may be easily adapted to any unmentioned line of business. 

Agricultural Implements and Seeds are of course largely sold to the 
farmer, and should be extensively advertised ; beginning not later than 
two months before the articles can be used. It is generally advisable to 
keep a small card in the local papers during the entire year. Write the 
advertisement specifically, not generally. Do not bunch the things up ; 
but it is always well to close the advertisement with some such expression 
as, " Everything the farmer wants always in stock." Advertise a hay- 


12 ABOUT A Dl 'ER T/SIA 'G. 

rake one time, a corn-sheller the next. An entire column may be advan- 
tageously filled with the advertisement of shovels of various sizes and 
styles. Folks will wonder why so much space is used for so insignificant 
an article as a shovel, but every farmer and man with a yard uses a shovel, 
and wonderment will help considerably in influencing them to inspect 
"that shovel which is being advertised so much;" and before they go 
out of the store the shovel may be the smallest of several purchases. 

Architects cannot with propriety advertise extensively. Indeed, the 
architect's best advertisement is the house he builds, supplemented with 
a neat card in the local papers. The shrewd architect will see to it that 
the press gives him full credit for the building, not in a puffy way, the 
praise to be entirely directed towards the work, the architect's name 
appearing incidentally. Architects may find it profitable to issue small 
pamphlets or "tracts," each devoted to the treatment of some line of 
architectural work, such as "About Mantels," " Artistic Doors," " Unique 
Mouldings," "The Ideal Dining-room," "The Perfect Hall." 

Artists' advertising ranks about on a par with that of the architect. 
The artist should cultivate the friendship of newspaper men, and use their 
influence to keep his pictures from being "too much unspoken of." 

Auctioneers should advertise for property to sell in order to be able 
to advertise it for sale. The advertisement of a sale should be explicit, 
with a free use of all commendable and truthful adjectives. The word 
" auction " attracts people, and should be printed in large type, to be 
immediately preceded or followed by a head-line description of the 
property to be sold, such as " An Elegant Residence," " A Comfortable 
Home," "A Charming Country Seat," "A First-Class Farm," "A Hand- 
some Four-Story House." The auctioneer should request a full descrip- 
tion of the property to appear once or twice in the reading columns of the 
local papers before the sale, and have a report of the sale appear after it 
has taken place ; auctioneer's name always being mentioned. 

WHA T? 13 

Bakers should advertise specialties almost exclusively, such as, " Our 
Brand of Cream Bread," "Hot Muffins," "Home-Made Brown Bread," 
" Wheat Gems," " Old Fashioned Ginger Bread." If possible, originate a 
specific name for some line of food, as " White Cloud Biscuits for Tea," 
and push that article continuously until another and better one is 

Banks will find it beneficial to announce exchange, drafts, etc. ; and if 
located in the larger places, can attract new business by constantly 
keeping the name before the public, occasionally printing the names 
of the officials and directors. Savings banks should carry an unob- 
trusive standing card in the local papers, and statistical articles, show- 
ing the value of systematic saving, can be easily placed by influence, 
gratuitously, into the local papers, with the name of the bank incident- 
ally mentioned, if the small card of the bank be running in the advertising 

Barbers may find profitable semi-humorous advertising, using such 
head lines as " He Slept While I Shaved Him," "The Chair of Luxury," 
- Never Against the Grain," " Hair Cut While You Wait," " Hair Lifting 
to Order," " A Sand Papered Shave." The condition of the shop should 
always be as neat and attractive as the advertisement. 

Bicycles, Guns, and Sporting Goods. Local agencies or stores will 
find local advertising a decided aid in increasing sales ; indeed, with the 
opening of the store, or agency, advertising alone will inform people that 
such arUcles are for sale in town. Bicycles, at least eight months in the 
year, should be advertised to the extent of a card in the local papers of 
from, say two to six inches ; and the advertisement should be changed 
every week, if possible, and a little attention will make it possible to make 
such changes. Cultivate the acquaintance of local newspaper men, and 
whenever a machine of the same make as the agent sells is the first to 
cross the tape, obtain mention of the name of the machine in the local 


report of the contest. A simple mention of the name of the machine 
ridden by the winner is generally more effective than an indiscriminate 
effusion of adjectives, which discloses the cat-in-the-meal even to the most 
ignorant reader. Aid in creating so much interest in cycling matters that 
the local papers will, at the suggestion, print regular cycling notes, as 
news matter ; and among these notes it is very easy to secure more or 
less mention of the machine sold without its having the appearance of 
being an advertisement. Encourage bicycle meets and races, organize 
clubs, and interest agricultural fair managers in having bicycle races a 
part of the out-door attractions of the fair, and offer to take charge of the 
event without expense to the fair association. Guns and other sporting 
goods require about the same amount of local advertising as do bicycles, 
and are always certain to furnish considerable material for local mention. 
Shooting contests are of public interest, and a simple mention of the 
name of the gun or pistol used in the account of the match, does not have 
the appearance of advertising, and yet impresses the public with the value 
of the arms used. Do not state that the gun is the best made, in so many 
words, simply print the remarkable scores made with it. Speak about the 
scores made by crack sportsmen with the gun to be sold, and that every 
member of some prominent rifle team use the gun entirely. Furnish rifle 
news to the local papers, with occasional mention of the arms used. Do 
not say directly that the base balls sold by the agent will outwear any 
other base balls made, simply mention to the public that such a local club 
will use no other make of balls. Fishing tackle is worthy of special 
advertising, preceding and during the fishing season. Vary the substance 
of the advertisement to fit the demands of all classes and ages of fisher- 
men. The advertisement of all sporting goods should begin in the local 
papers one or two months preceding the active selling season, and should 
continue close up to the closing of the last month in which the articles 
can be used. The advertisement should never occupy a less space than 
two inches, and frequently as much as a half a column can be advanta- 
geously used. 

WHA T? 15 

Boots and Shoes are worn by everybody, consequently customers 
are legion. The retail trade will support any reasonable amount 
of advertising. Advertise rubbers as near to wet weather as is 
possible. When school opens have a good deal to say about "school 
shoes." When vacation begins let people know where tennis, yachting, 
hunting, or bicycling shoes can be procured. See that the cold weather 
does not get ahead of the announcement that the winter's stock is all in, — 
provided it is. Advertise foot-wear to fit not only all sizes of feet and 
all tastes of people, but all seasons and occasions, and spring upon the 
public the right kind of shoe at the ripest time for selling it. 

Carpet advertising should be written largely to please the ladies. The 
woman who is not influenced by a well-written carpet advertisement never 
had, or will have, a carpet about the house. Advertise one style of carpet 
at a time ; then try rags ; then straw-matting, if in its season. If there 
be in stock a particularly fine pattern, make the people appreciate it if it 
takes a month to do it. Tell how it is made ; ask the local press to describe 
the intricate mechanism of the loom which weaved it. Advertise warm 
carpets and rugs in winter, and cool, clean matting in summer. When 
trade is dull buy a hundred or so pretty rugs, and advertise them at a 
price little, if any, more than they actually cost, — but on no account say 
that they are sold for cost or less than cost. Let the customer unaided 
be surprised at the quality for the money. It is an object to get people 
into the store even if they do not immediately purchase, or their purchase 
bring no direct profit ; and there are times during the year when special 
pushing is needed to keep the clerks busy. Every customer drawn by the 
advertisement of the rugs is liable to be a customer for something else, 
and before the year is out a permanent one. 

Carriages need a moderate amount of continuous advertising, with a 
marked increase during two or three months of the year. See that the 
local press mentions the sale of a vehicle to a prominent business man, 
clergyman, doctor, or lawyer. Parade the good qualities of some style of 


carriage, point by point, week by week. In a carriage advertisement the 
quality, ease, and appearance of the vehicle are more attractive to the 
would-be customer than the price, yet the price helps. 

Clothing Readv-Made admits of the most extensive of advertising. 
No department of retail trade suffers more from competition, and wher- 
ever competition is there must be competitive advertising. I do not 
recall a single prosperous retail clothing house which advertising has not 
materially aided in building up, and which is not holding its trade largely 
through the instrumentality of printer's ink. The opportunity of the 
retail clothing dealer for originality in advertising is exceptionally good. 
Retail clothing can be advertised with dignity, or lack of dignity, of 
course within the lines of propriety. The service of the printer, the 
poet, the artist, the bill-poster, and the sign-painter can all be utilized. 
There is no type too big to boom the wear and fit of ready-made clothing. 
Be careful not to give cause for saying that there is more quality in the 
advertisement than on the counter. The majority of mankind purchase 
not exceeding two suits a year, and generally in the spring and autumn ; 
but do not fall into the fatal error that advertising of clothing shall be 
limited to the few months of the lively selling season. The shrewd 
clothing dealer strikes for trade when no one is commonly supposed to 
be buying, and from all quarters of the town come men and boys who 
have put off buying that suit of clothes, and were unconsciously 
waiting for an invitation to purchase ; and the off-season advertising store 
gets the bulk of that waiting trade, often new customers. 

Coal and Wood are always used and always in demand, and require 
continuous advertising, Just preceding the coming of the cold months, 
the trade being livelier, the advertisement should be larger ; but the 
advertisement should never be temporarily discontinued. Coal, being 
neither artistic nor pretty, must be sold on its intrinsic value ; conse- 
quently advertise that each ton weighs a ton, that it is all coal, that the 
sidewalk is never left dirty, that prompt delivery is guaranteed. When- 

WHAT? 17 

ever possible advertise a specific grade of coal, especially adapted to the 
kitchen stove, or to the parlor grate, or to the furnace. Let that grade of 
coal be honored by an appropriate or well-sounding name ; as "Forest City 
Coal," " Clinkerless Coal," "Peerless Coal." It is necessary that this 
special grade of coal be a superior article, and worthy of all that is said 
of it. 

Confectionery stores have grown to be a part of the business life of 
every populous town. They require continuous advertising of fair-sized 
space in the local papers, say from two to six inches. Advertise some 
particular line of sweets, as " Old-Fashioned Molasses Candy," " Our 
Own Chocolate Creams," "Mother Carey's Sticks," " La La Kisses."" 
The candy should be just as represented, and freshness is essential. 
Place considerable stress upon purity ; the mother's confidence in a 
candy store is regulated by that one quality more than by all the others. 
Originate some delicious kind of inexpensive candy, sell it at the lowest 
price consistent with profit, and use it as the advertising leader, for a 
month or more. Announce that the work rooms are always open for 
inspection, and keep them in a presentable condition. People like to 
know how candy is manufactured ; it costs nothing to gratify them in this 
direction, and it does help the sales. 

Crockery, Glass, and Lamps can be advertised about as many ways 
as the variety of their manufacture. Lamps may boast of a limited 
special selling season, but crockery and glass are always marketable. 
Keep a big advertisement going all of the time. Always have something 
to say about this beautiful set, or that serviceable ware. Change the 
advertisement so often that folks will believe that the dish trade is 
limitless, and so it is. Manipulate a run on goblets, a panic on 
decorated tea sets, a rush on pitchers, a hurrah on platters. Do not let 
a week go by without hunting up some line of regular stock, and push- 
ing it specially. Instead of interfering with regular sales, it will make 
them livelier. 


Dentists must advertise to suit the style of the town and the style of 
the people they cater to. The ethics of some towns will not permit the 
burning of professional red-fire, while others will happily absorb all one 
chooses to give it. Generally, however, any dentist can safely insert his 
professional card in the local papers, and make brief mention of any 
dental specialty. Some dentists find it profitable to " bill the town," so 
to speak, and there can be no real objection, save the more or less damage 
to technical professional reputation. 

Doctors, if of the regular school, must confine themselves to single 
cards in the local papers and refined printed announcements, and even these 
are sometimes out of taste in large cities. Good will and favors to 
newspaper men may result in personal items about certain successful and 
difficult cases, which cannot lower the professional dignity, while they go 
far towards establishing the reputation of the physician. 

Dressmakers have the local field of women ; and moderate, modest, 
tasty, and brief advertising often materially aids in gaining patrons. 
Read the fashion periodicals thoroughly, and if possible announce the 
metropolitan fashions in advance of competitors. 

Druggists should do considerable local advertising, the diversity of 
their business admitting of many specialties. No reliable first-class 
druggist will push the sale of any proprietary medicine, excepting simple 
home-made remedies for colds, coughs, bowel complaints, burns, toothache, 
corns, and the like. If the articles have merit, extensive local advertising 
will bring and hold profitable trade. Vary the advertisements to fit the 
physical needs of the season. In the advertising of medicines be careful 
not to follow the extravagant style of most of the patent medicine dealers. 
The volume of the druggist's local legitimate trade depends upon his 
reputation. The prescription department can often be advertised, and 
there are times when even a soda-water trade can be increased by local 

WHAT? 19 

Dry Goods can be as extensively and advantageously advertised as any 
line of trade. In variety and price they are limitless. A year's steady 
advertising, touching but one article at a time, will not exhaust the 
principal staple goods to be found upon the counters of a first-class dry- 
goods store. I do not mean the inference to be drawn that the same 
article should be touched upon but once a year, for it is well known that 
continually hammering away at the same goods is often to be recommended ; 
but remember not to strike all of the blows with the same hammer, or 
with the same measure of stroke. Several new and taking advertise- 
ments can be easily written on the same grade of shawl, and the marvellous 
diversity of dress goods admits of innumerable announcements, similar 
yet different. If possible, advertise one article at a time, if necessary 
returning to it after long or short intervals. Do not attempt to explode 
all there is in the stock at one blast. If the good words about one line of 
goods can be driven into the reader at each loading, be content. Make 
one day a napkin day, another a sheet and pillow-case occasion, another 
devoted to hosiery, another to underwear, another to dress patterns. 
Make the advertisement personal, direct, short, pointed, original. Have 
something interesting to say, and say it as briefly as intelligible words 
can tell it. Make every announcement a pressing invitation to every- 
body. Do not boldly urge people to come, simply invite them ; but there 
must be real life in the invitation. A confidential, personal reading 
article sort of an announcement is unique, and to be recommended for 
frequent use. Write it as one would write a letter to a friend, describing 
briefly and pointedly some particular line of goods. It must be the 
personification of honesty, and in it should be veins of friendly kindliness 
and voluntary advice. Set it in Roman type not smaller than pica, with 
no display, and little capitalization. 

Fancy Goods when sold, as they usually are, at the dry-goods stores, 
properly come under the firm's general advertising. A store which deals 
in fancy goods exclusively, has, however, ample opportunity for original 


and attractive advertising in the description of the variety of goods 
constantly in stock. The one-idea-at-a-time rule should be generally 
followed, and the fluctuations of the thermometer should influence the 
arranging of the advertisements of seasonable articles. Endeavor to carry 
some especially attractive line in stock, which would be peculiarly adapted 
to being advertised. About a quarter of a column should be running 
continuously, and occasionally it would be advisable to use a much larger 
space. Have the advertisement as tastily, as freshly, and • as handsomely 
arranged as the goods in the store. 

-4- Fish should be advertised all the year around. Few opportunities 
occur to boom fish by special advertising, but a moderate-sized fresh 
advertisement of fresh fish, oysters, clams, and the like, is recommended. 
The first arrival of oysters, lobsters, blue fish, or other fish of seasons, 
furnishes opportunity for limited special advertising, and an unusual catch 
of trout or other game fish, admits of a little boom in printer's ink. Such 
an event is news, and the local papers, provided some advertising be given 
them, are always ready to print as local matter a reasonable account, with 
the dealer's name attached, of the catch or arrival. 

Five and Ten Cent stores are now recognized as a legitimate part of 
the local business of every town of fair size. Their success largely 
depends upon well directed, catchy, and extensive advertising. The 
advertisement should be never less than six inches, and frequently a column 
or more can be used to advantage. Do not advertise more than two or 
three articles at a time, and let those articles be of positive utility, and to 
be sold at the lowest possible prices consistent with profit. The almost 
limitless variety of goods in stock admits of fresh and seasonable 
advertisements sure to interest the majority of families. Each line of 
goods should be generally advertised as extensively as lines of similar 
goods are advertised at the higher priced stores, but there may be in the 
advertisement a sort of bombastic swing hardly allowable in the 

WHAT? 21 

advertisements of the higher priced stores. Five cent stores should sail 
with all the canvas set, provided every sail is full of wind ; in fact, a 
reasonable amount of wind is to be encouraged. 

Florists will find moderate and continuous advertising profitable, 
with occasionally larger advertisements. Fortunate is the florist who can 
agitate a run on some particular flower, if he have plenty of them. If 
possible, advertise one kind of flower at a time. Announce that some 
particular flower is now worn extensively by fashionable people, if it is. 
Watch the reports of weddings or receptions which constantly appear 
in the society papers of the larger cities ; note the flowers worn, and 
obtain favorable notices about them in the local papers, and be sure that 
the article mentions that the florist is carrying a quantity of this fashion- 
able flower. See to it that the local newspapers give ample notice of all 
elaborate floral designs, which show the taste and originality of the 

nC^ Flour and Grain stores should run a moderate sized card, say from 
two to six inches, in the local papers, throughout the year ; and at least 
twice a year, for periods of a month or so, increase the advertising to 
double or more the usual space. If possible, advertise a special brand 
of flour, under an original name, perhaps ; and see to it that that adver- 
tised brand of flour is as good, or better, than the advertisement 
claims. Special advertising on grain should begin early enough to 
precede the grain selling season, and continue for fully a month subse- 
quent to the opening of the season ; returning of course to the usual sized 

Fruit is an article of variableness, and there are but few retail stores 
devoted exclusively to the fruit trade that can afford to advertise more 
than very moderately. Fruit is usually sold at the other stores, and in 
connection with other perishable goods, forms a speciality to be advertised 
in its season. 


Furnishing Goods for gentlemen admit of considerable continuous 
advertising. The advertisement should each time be directed towards 
some special line, as of shirts, neck-ties, or stockings. A run on shirts is 
recommended for any season of the year, and on colored shirts with the 
opening of warm weather. Light-weight stockings are articles of interest 
to gentlemen during the warmer months, and thick underwear is an 
opportune article for special advertising when fall is waning. Lawn or 
other summer ties are catchy advertising subjects in the season ; and a 
special sale of suspenders is constantly open to the grasping. A week 
should not pass without something new, or made to look like new, in the 

Furniture is decidedly one of the best articles to be boomed by 
advertising. Address the advertisement to the family, particularly to the 
female portion of it. Use considerable space, big type, plenty of catch 
lines, and all justifiable adjectives. Have much to say about the strength 
of the furniture, the smoothness of its finish, and of its other woody 
characteristics. Make an occasional run on chamber sets ; a special 
advertisement can easily be written for each particular set. Boom chairs ; 
expatiate upon the stiffness of their legs. Parlor beds can support a deal 
of printer's ink ; so can chiffoniers and tables. Keep some particular 
kind of furniture, which is locally new and of superior durability, 
constantly before the public ; and stake the reputation upon its quality. 
Do not generally advertise more than one article at a time. 

Furs are closely allied to the hat and cap trade, and admit of moderate 
and dignified advertising during the winter and the two or three months 
preceding it. At one time advertise furs of a quality beyond the reach 
of any save the wealthy, and put particular stress upon the expense and 
quality ; then announce a stock of furs of medium quality and price ; and 
follow with advertisements of durable furs of cheaper quality and less 
price ; but do not indicate that the two last are especially adapted to the 
poorer class of people. 

WHAT? 23 

Gas and Steam Fitters will find moderate advertising about all 
that will be profitable. It should be generally limited to a small 
continuous card, say of from two to four inches, in the local papers, with 
at least monthly changes. Advertise promptness, and exceed it in 
practice. Announce that a specialty is made of responding to emergencies, 
as the bursting of pipes in the night time. 

Gloves, except in the larger cities, are sold in connection with other 
lines of goods, and form an excellent subject for special advertising. 
Advertise gloves to fit big hands and little hands. There are winter 
gloves, and summer gloves, and cheap gloves, and other kinds of gloves ; 
some of season and some without season ; and each class deserves an 
entire, special advertisement. 

j(^ Grocers need never stop advertising. The multiplicity of the stock 
in trade presents something fresh for every week in the year. Advertise 
the new arrivals. Start a molasses run, or push the sale of canned goods, 
for a change ; but do not pretend to sell less than cost. Advertise full 
weight, and verify it. 

Hardware should be moderately and continuously advertised by a card, 
say from two to four inches, in the local papers. The principle articles in 
stock need occasional extra pushing, and give opportunity for slight 
increase in advertising space. After a burglary it is well to call attention 
to lines of locks ; and there are other things which are opportune for 
advertising at certain occasions, such as snow-shovels in winter, and wire 
screens in summer. 

Harnesses, with the repair shop, generally a part of a well-regulated 
harness store, require little extensive advertising, but that little can be 
made profitable to the dealer or maker, and needs to be continuous. 
Whenever possible, advertise some particular harness of undoubted 


Hats and Caps will support a fair amount of advertising, which should 
be continuous, Supplemented with occasional enlargement. The space 
used should seldom be less than four or five inches ; and as much as half 
a column or more will be found advantageous, just preceding the change 
of seasons. A run on some inexpensive, and if possible original, style of 
hat or cap is recommended. The opening of the straw hat season should 
be preceded by increased advertising space. Start with straw hats in 
general, to be followed with some style of straw hat in particular ; then 
announce a stock of tennis or yachting caps, or some popular, or that 
can be made popular, kind of light cloth hat. Preceding the cold weather, 
begin to advertise winter hats ; have much to say about some particular 
style of winter hat. Fur hats make a good specialty for advertising 
during a cold snap ; and beaver and other styles of medium weight hats 
are worth pushing between seasons. Keep up with the styles, and always 
advertise stylish hats, with or without stylish prices. 

Hay and Straw should be advertised moderately and continuously, 
say in space of from two to four inches, with slight increase preceding the 
opening of the selling season ; of course continuing in enlarged size 
through a portion of the season. Advertise prompt delivery, and be as 
prompt as is proclaimed by the advertisement. 

Hotels will find it profitable to run a small card in the local papers 
continuously, and to attract trade by advertising in the papers situated in 
towns in which reside many of their transient guests. Arrange with the 
local papers to print the list of arrivals, which nearly all of the papers will 
do gratuitously, if the hotel be running a regular advertisement. See to it 
that all banquets and receptions held at the hotel are properly mentioned. 
A complimentary notice of this sort is worth a good dinner to all the 
newspaper men available. 

Insurance companies have the open field of humanity at their disposal, 
and should advertise extensively throughout the available territory. I 

WHAT .' 


refer wholly to local companies, or agencies, for an entire book could not 
cover the field of general insurance advertising of the national companies. 
A local paper should never be permitted to go to press without the local 
company's advertisement upon the first page. The space occupied should 
never be less than six inches, and can run to any size. The names of the 
official heads, with the directors, should occasionally be included in the 
advertisement ; but the usual standing advertisement of this sort is not 
very effective. Better announce leading facts, like, " Not A Claim 
Disputed In 15 Yeans," "$100,000 Paid For Losses Within A Year," 
" Not A Lawsuit," " Prompt Payments Always," and the like. As soon 
as losses are settled, see to it that the local papers speak about it ; and 
remember that in fife insurance, large risks taken are interesting items of 
local news. Local agents will find it advisable to advertise to more than 
moderate extent in the local papers, and should advertise continuously. 
The business furnishes opportunity for many local notices, which should 
be improved. Letters from parties stating that all business transactions 
have been satisfactory, and all claims paid with commendable promptness, 
furnish good material for advertising. 

Jewelry and Clocks need considerable local advertising, say from 
three to four inches continuously, to half a column or more, preceding 
and during the holidays. A dozen new and effective advertisements can 
be made up upon the qualities and prices of clocks ; and each branch of 
the jewelry line has sparkling opportunity for sparkling advertising. 
Avoid advertising more than two things at a time ; one thing at a time is 
preferable. Do not let the holidays get ahead of the holiday advertising. 
Announce " True time constantly on hand," and " Watches regulated 

Kitchen Goods arc always salable, and some of them have the distinc- 
tion of possessing special seasons. Begin to advertise gas and oil stoves a 
month or so before the hot season, and continue until within a month of 
its close. Announce in big letters that a Johnny cake, or something else 


in the cookery line, baked on one of the so-and-so oil or gas stoves, will be 
presented to every lady who may call for it. Cook the articles in plain 
sight of the public, and for two or three weeks bill the town and fill the 
papers with the announcement. In the cold weather, especially before it 
is fairly settled, push the staple articles of the trade. Do not stop the 
advertising entirely in any part of the year. 

Laundries should keep a moderate-sized card running throughout 
the year. If cheap prices are an object, advertise cheap prices, specify- 
ing the price on each leading article. Announce prices alternately with 
quality of the work. 

Lawyers cannot in good taste insert more than a modest card in the 
local papers. Lawyers, like all other professional men, have intimate 
relations with the local press, and can easily exert their influence to get 
unobjectionable notice of successful suits. 

Lumbermen will find moderate, continuous advertising beneficial, and 
it is generally advisable to increase it to a limited extent during and pre- 
ceding the building months. 

Marble and Stone workers are about on a par, so far as advertising 
is concerned, with the lumber men ; and will find it advantageous to carry 
a small card in the local papers throughout the year. Obtain local 
newspaper mention of all artistic designs or specimens of marble or stone 
cutting, as of monuments, fronts of buildings, and special work or carving 
in marble or stone. 

*f- Markets for meat and provisions need an advertisement of from 
three, to six inches, continuously in the local papers. Advertise goods in 
their season. Have a good deal to say about fresh meat, tender steak, 
juicy chops, cucumbers just from the vines, new potatoes, ripe tomatoes, 
berries picked to-day ; but do not misrepresent. Detection is sure, for 
the customer has the senses of sight and taste arrayed against the dealer. 
Announce prices frequently ; fair prices for first-class quality. 

WHAT? 27 

Masons should do advertising to about the extent done by builders and 
lumbermen ; very moderately and always continuously. Obtain local 
newspaper mention of unusually large or difficult to perform contracts, and 
of their successful completion. 

Milkmen in general need not advertise more than a small card in the 
local papers ; but the dairy-man, with a fancy farm, will often find that 
extensive advertising of pure farm milk and other products of the farm, 
will build up a large and permanent patronage. With the present watery 
condition of milk, at any rate, the supposed watery condition of it, it 
will take considerable advertising to get new customers, but advertising 
will do it, if the^milk be satisfactory. 

Milliners should carry the style of the hats and bonnets into the 
advertisement, which should be tasty always, and vary as often as do the 
styles and number of styles. Let the card be of fair size, say of from two 
to six inches, throughout the entire year ; and at least twice as much 
space should be used just preceding and following the seasons. Origi- 
nate some stylish style of bonnet or hat, give it an appropriate and well- 
sounding name, and force its recognition from every lady in town and 
about. Cater to the tastes of the community in advertising, as well as in 
the management of the goods, and let the advertisement be as fresh as the 
freshest new bonnet. The openings should be well advertised, and written 
up artistically and correctly. If the local newspaper man has not the 
peculiar ability to describe the indescribable, find some lady of taste, 
imagination, and knowledge of millinery, to furnish the substance of the 
article ; perhaps the milliner can do it, but the chances are that an out- 
sider can produce a freshness generally difficult for one to produce who 
has lived and worked among the things to be written about. 

Music, including musical instruments, absolutely requires plenty of 
printer's ink to proclaim its sounds and tones. The local dealer in 
musical things must be one of the large advertisers. The advertisement 


should never be withdrawn, and it should be changed nearly every week. 
Print testimonials, one or two at a time. When sales are made to local 
celebrities, see to it that the local press mentions such sales. Carry 
in stock a large number of some extremely popular air, put the price on it 
down, and keep the local papers full of it. If some amateur musician or 
singer of note renders it, be sure the name of the piece is given in the 
report of the performance. Always have some new and catchy selection 
before the public, and through advertising it, force the people to purchase 
not only the piece in question, but to look over the stock on hand ; in 
other words, have constantly a drawing card before the public, and be sure 
that it has sufficient worth to substantiate the advertising claims. 

Paint dealers, so far as advertising is concerned, are about on a par 
with painters ; but should do in addition a more or less amount of special 
advertising of ready-mixed paints, in their season ; and if the town is 
of considerable size, it may be beneficial to extensively advertise this 

Painters should advertise about as moderately as do builders and 
lumbermen ; and they may find it advisable to do a little special adver- 
tising slightly preceding the house-painting season. 

Paper Hangings require a moderate amount of continuous advertising, 
say from three to six inches in the local papers. At one time advertise 
cheap and pretty designs for the chamber ; then announce a line of hall 
papers, cheap and expensive ; follow with a moderate sized blast on a stock 
of unique and artistic designs for the dining-room ; devote considerable 
space to inform the people that really expensive-looking parlor papers can 
be sold at extremely low prices consistent with profit. Advertise blue 
papers, red papers, sunset-glow papers, green papers without arsenic, 
smoothly-finished papers, rough papers, dados, borders, centre-pieces, 
imitation frescoes, Lincrusta Walton designs. Avoid advertising more 
than one or two at a time. 

WHAT? 29 

Photographers will find it advantageous to run their advertisements in 
the local papers continuously. The advertisement should occupy never 
lEss than two inches of space, and from that up to a half a column, and 
from four to six inches on an average throughout the year. The photog- 
raphers who cater exclusively to the fashionable trade should hesitate 
before extensively announcing cut prices, but a good many photographers 
can, with advantage, use flaming advertisements announcing specialties at 
special prices. Advertise children's pictures taken in the twinkling of an 
eye. In fact, the photographer who has the reputation of taking the finest 
children's pictures in town, can, from using them as leaders, draw to his 
studio the trade of all ages. See to it that the newspapers mention 
locally the taking of photographs of celebrities and prominent person- 
ages, provided no objection be made by the sitter to the publicity. The 
taking of groups, of families, or of societies, furnish allowable local news, 
the name of the photographic artist to be given in the notice. 

Plumbers should run a card in the local papers throughout the year, 
the advertisement to occupy from two to four inches of space. Announce 
promptness in repairing, and be as prompt as the announcement. 

Real Estate men will find it necessary to run a card in the local 
papers, say of from three to six inches, continuously, with marked increase 
of space for special sales. Advertise for houses and land to sell, and houses 
to be let ; and when property is placed in the agent's hands for disposal, 
advertise it as extensively as is consistent, using for the special advertise- 
ment not less than six inches of space, and often as much as a column. 
In describing the premises follow the directions given for auctioneers ; in 
fact, as far as advertising is concerned, real estate agents and auctioneers 
are closely allied. Influence the local papers to print full description of 
the property. Make it a point to collect local real estate transfers and 
other similar news for the local papers ; charge them nothing for it, — the 
editors will gladly repay the kindness in local mention, which amounts to ' 
very good advertising. 

30 ABO UT A D VER T/S/A 'G. 

Restaurants require continuous advertising in the local newspapers, 
say from two to eight inches of space. The purity of the viands is the 
one great thing to be advertised. Speak of the home-made bread, the pies, 
the cake. Announce pure milk, good coffee, creamery butter. Advertise 
the tender steaks and chops, and the juicy roasts. Have some especially 
good dishes, like English chops, plum pudding, Welsh rare-bit, short-cake, 
apple pie, and use them as leaders in advertising. 

Safes have no special advertising season, except perhaps that more 
safes are sold during the month of January than in any other month. 
Read the large city papers, and whenever a burglary or fire has occurred, 
a large proportion of the loss resulting from the lack of a safe or vault, 
announce the loss and its cause in the advertisement, and in big type 
proclaim the advantages of having a safe or vault upon the premises. Do 
not miss the opportunity, always offered to advertising, whenever a 
safe has passed through a fiery ordeal unharmed. Local advertisments 
of safes should occupy from two to six inches of space, and an advertise- 
ment of some size should run throughout the year. 

Schools and Teachers should advertise to the extent of from two 
inches to half a column, for the former ; and from one to two inches for the 
latter ; during the whole, or at least, the last month, of vacation, and it is 
generally advisable to continue the advertisement for a month or two 
longer, to begin again before the winter term opens. Music teachers, 
and others, who devote their energies to some special department of educa- 
tion, will generally find it beneficial to run a continuous advertisement. 
Opportunity is constantly occurring for much newspaper mention of 
commencements, examinations, exhibitions, musical soirees, which are 
pleasing to the pupils, and furnish unobjectionable advertising, which, if 
carefully directed, must recur to the benefit of the school or teacher. 

Sewing Machines cannot be sold to any great extent by local agents 
without extensive local advertising. The advertisement must be as sharp 

IVNA T? 31 

as the competition; it must parade the advantages peculiar to the machine 
into the by-ways and hedges in town and surrounding districts. Challenge 
competition. Have competitive trials with rival machines, that is, if 
there be a fair show of success ; and if success results fairly, paint the 
town with printer's ink. In advertising sewing machines, modesty is not 
a virtue. Do not be afraid of big adjectives and plenty of them. But do 
not lie about the qualities of the machine, for a lie in this direction is 
sure to come back to roost in the store which hatched it. Advertise 
machines for rent, and to be sold on instalments. Force the machine, 
if it have sufficient intrinsic value, upon the public; show specimens of its 
work ; but do not pretend that it will do what it will not do. Dispel the 
popular libel upon the trade that sewing machine agents are the personifi- 
cation of cheek and misrepresentation, by being scrupulously honest ; 
but remember that big words and booming statements to be effective need 
not be given to exaggeration. 

-^ Stables require a reasonable amount of local advertising, say from two 
to four inches in the newspapers throughout the year. Make up special 
advertisements, as, " Good Trotters To Let," " Saddle Horses," " Family 
Teams," "Horses Children Can Drive," and the like. During the 
summer season advertise phaetons for ladies; during the winter, sleighs for 
everybody. Occasionally announce that horses really enjoy boarding at 
the stable. 

Stationers and Booksellers need continuous advertising of fair 
size, in the local papers. Keep the most fashionable letter paper in stock, 
and before the public. Advertise diaries of all sizes, shapes, and prices, 
during December. Interest book-keepers in the quality of the ledgers 
and other account books. Announce engraved cards and invitations as 
specialties, and have a big frame of samples in the store or window. 
Create a run on albums. Especially advertise school books just before the 
opening of school. Always keep a stock of the popular novels and other 
books, and boom the particular book which is known to be receiving 


national comment. It is well to especially advertise cheap editions of 
recognized works ; in fact, it will often be found beneficial to use this class 
of pamphlets for a leader in attracting more profitable trade. If the 
publisher of a book in great demand has not presented the local editor 
with a copy, give him one for review, the name of the local dealer to be 
mentioned ; and furnish the editor with occasional notes and comments 
about the book, which will aid in stimulating and holding the demand. 
The stationer's and bookseller's advertisement should be continuous, never 
less than three or four inches, and often as large as from a half to a whole 
column, especially preceding Christmas. 

Stoves and Furnaces naturally should have double the amount of adver- 
tising, preceding, and during the cold season ; but the dealer should guard 
against falling into the popular error of stopping the advertisement during 
any portion of the year ; although, of course, it is generally advisable 
to cut down the advertising space about one half during the warm months. 
Have much to say about the heating qualities of the stoves and furnaces, 
the fuel required, the small amount of work required in their care. 
Re-print in pamphlet or circular form, some lecture or article on ventilation 
and heating, and with it the advertisement of some stove, furnace, or other 
heating apparatus, which conforms to the sanitary principles of the 
lecturer or author. Open-grate stoves are worthy of special pushing ; 
furnaces require considerable advertising ; and parlor stoves need their 
peculiar qualities and external appearance bulletined in the local papers. 
Original and attractive advertising can be suggested by the cooking 
qualities and conveniences of the kitchen stove, with special stress 
upon the economy of fuel, the capacity and the conveniences of hot 
water tanks, warming ovens, bracket shelves, and other commodities 
with which first-class cooking stoves and ranges arc now fitted. The 
advertisement should vary in size from two inches or more in the dull 
season, to si.K inches to a column during and just preceding the cold 

irn.iT/ 33 

Tailors will find beneficial continuous and moderate sized advertising 
in the local papers. The card should vary in size from two inches in the 
time of between seasons, up to a half column preceding and during the 
busy months of the year. Do not stop the advertisement at any time, for 
a surprisingly large number of people invariably put off getting measured 
for clothes until late in the season, and the progressive advertising tailor 
is certain to gain much of the tardy custom. It is sometimes advisable to 
announce cut prices between seasons, but let the cut be confined to the 
price, not to the quality of material or workmanship. In some places 
tailors of conservative and high reputation will hesitate about lowering the 
price at any time, and will confine their advertising to the modest, 
unobtrusive card of from two to four or five inches in the local papers, 
supplemented with handsomely printed or engraved announcements. A 
popular line of durable fabric, of assorted colors, can be used as a leader; 
■ and uniforms for local military companies, bands, firemen, secret, or other 
occasional parading organizations, form opportunity for extra advertisino-. 
A run on well fitting, well made trousers will bring considerable new 
trade, which may become permanent. Tailors' advertising must be 
adapted to fit the town, the character of the trade catered to, and the 

' Tea and Coffee stores require much local advertising; never less 

than a running continuous card of from three to six inches, and often from 
half to an entire column can be advantageously used. Have some special 
grade of tea or coffee for a leader. State its quality and its price, both of 
which must vary to suit the condition of the customers. No matter what 
the quality, have it unadulterated, and precisely as represented. 
Announce hot tea or coffee for fairs, parties, or assemblies. Grind the 
coffee on the premises, in the window if conv^enicnt. Cocoa and chocolate 
are a part of the trade, and furnish opportunity for advertising. By 
quality, price, and the advertising of them, establish a local reputation, and 
maintain it by keeping up the standard of the goods, and the freshness of 


advertising. Never discontinue the advertisement, whether trade be dull 
or brisk. If particularly dull, increase the advertising space. The 
frequent prevalence of offering premiums of glass or crockery ware is 
profitable in many districts, and when used furnishes material for effective 
advertising ; but do not let the expense of the gifts depreciate the quality 
of the tea or coffee to be sold. It is far better to have no premiums at 
all, than to combine them with a doubtful quality of tea or coffee. 

Tinsmiths should run a continuous card in the local papers, say from 
two to four inches. Advertise some special line of ware which is a 
necessity in every household. Always announce repairing done with 

Transportation companies, such as local expresses, excursion, or 
passenger steamboats, stage lines, and the like, which depend upon local 
patronage, find it absolutely necessary to do more or less local advertising. 
Present the local papers with passes, — not free passes, for there is no such 
thing as a free pass. The editor who obtains a so-called free pass pays for 
it generally to the equivalent of six times its face value. It would be better 
for the editor if there were no alleged free passes. Issue to him the pass, 
and he will reciprocate in valuable notices. If running excursions, influence 
the editor to print descriptions or mention of the ride or sail, the objects of 
interest, the cool breezes, the rest and quiet, the substantial table. Little 
squibs about the scenery and other attractions furnish unobjectionable 
semi-local news, and do much to attract excursionists. Always announce 
the time-tables and the price of tickets. Interest churches and societies, 
and make special terms for them. Advertise to be on time, and always 
be on time. Arrange special excursions, and advertise them as far in 
advance as it is possible to. No matter how cheap the tickets may be, 
give the people all that is announced, with some happy surprise. Satisfied 
excursionists are constant advertisements. Local passenger lines should 
advertise their time-tables, and do some additional advertising, if only to 
keep on good terms with the press. No line of business can less afford 



not to have the hearty support of newspaper men than regular passenger 
lines. Express companies require a moderate amount of local advertising. 
Advertise promptness, sure connection, and careful handling of goods, and 
verify the statements in fact. Expressmen should announce the location 
of order boxes. 

Trimmings admit of considerable local advertising, say from three or 
four inches of space to double that amount or more. Change the adver- 
tisement every week, and if it runs in a daily paper, have it fresh every 
day. When sold in connection with other lines, as trimmings generally 
are, they furnish fine opportunity for special advertising, and can be 
advantageously used for runs or leaders. Advertise few at a time; a 
detailed description of the stock is impossible ; and a well-written 
advertisement of even one class of trimmings, with casual mention of the 
completeness of the stock, will by no means limit trade to the class 
advertised. Advertise the fashions, and if possible be the first in town 
to announce fashionable designs in goods advertised. 

Undertakers cannot consistently do more than a moderate amount of 
advertising. The card should occupy a space of from one to four inches 
in the local papers, and should run continuously. Announce that calls are 
answered at all hours of the day or night. 

Variety Stores have unusual opportunity for striking advertising-. 
The space to be occupied should vary from four or five inches up to a 
column or more. Start a run of some popular article in stock as often 
as once a month, every week is better ; and wake up the people who really 
need the article, but don't realize it, into buying. Boom dollar goods, and 
fifty cent goods, and goods for a quarter apiece. Devote an entire 
advertisement to ladies' travelling and other hand bags. A half column 
can be advantageously filled in proclaiming the beauties of a line of vases, 
which are sold at the lowest price consistent with profit. Keep lines of 
porcelain and earthern ware for decorative purposes. Advertise them 


extensively. Print a circular or small pamphlet on the subject, and 
obtain mention of it in the local papers. Advertise fashionable things 
at unfashionable prices, and urge the fashion along, if it needs it, by plenty 
of printer's ink. Use big type, or very small type, with large space 
between the lines. The personal letter sort of advertisement is to be 
recommended. In it opportunity is given to interestingly describe articles 
for art, fancy work, or necessity, with a deal of valuable information to 
the public, which will make the announcements looked for, thoroughly 
read, and often digested. 

Wheelwrights and Blacksmiths will find a small card in the local 
papers of benefit. The advertisement should run continuously and occupy 
from two to four inches of space. Announce promptness in repairs and 
care in horse shoeing. If an improved nail or shoe be used, advertise the 
fact, with the advantage. 


'Twas in the newspaper, and all the world now knows about it.' 

In the United States and Canada there are about 16,500 periodical 
pubHcations, of which nearly 12,500 are printed once a week, and of the 
latter number over ten thousand, or nearly two-thirds of the entire period- 
ical list, are what are known as country newspapers. There are more 
than fifteen hundred daily papers, of which close upon one thousand 
are so-called provincial sheets, that is, daily papers printed in towns or 
cities where the population does not exceed fifty thousand. 

The monthly magazines, and other periodicals issued monthly, number 
in the vicinity of eighteen hundred. In a work upon local advertising, as 
is this, it is out of place to speak of advertising in this last named 
class, the advertising space in which is exclusively beneficial to national 

Any town in the East of three thousand people, or a town in the 
West of scarcely over five hundred inhabitants, without a local organ, is 
unworthy of more than a small type designation upon the county map, 
to be ignored completely by the Map of State. 

Few towns in the East with populations less than five thousand 
find it possible tc support a daily paper, and there are not many daily 
papers in the East published in places with a less population than ten 



The rush, enterprise, push, and free trading propensities of the West- 
ern people, make a daily paper possible and profitable in many towns 
where the total population does not exceed three thousand, and there 
are comparatively few county centres in the West containing five 
thousand people without one or more daily papers which are supposed to 
be remunerative. 

By local papers, I mean papers with the bulk of their circulation limited 
to local territory. The New York Herald is to be classed as a semi-local 
paper, for half of its circulation is in New York City and suburbs, the 
balance distributed over the country. Harper's Weekly is not in any sense 
a local paper, for its circulation, although of course proportionately larger 
in New York City, is distributed more or less evenly throughout the land. 

Papers like the Chicago Inter-Ocean, the Boston Herald, or Boston 
Globe, Baltimore Sun, Philadelphia Ledger, and San Francisco Chronicle, 
are local publications, to the extent that in the vicinity of nine-tenths of 
their circulations are confined to the cities in which they are printed, 
with its suburbs, although of course they have more or less national dis- 
tribution. Papers like the Worcester Spy, Springfield Republican, Des 
Moines Leader, Kansas City Journal, and Denver Republican, find their 
circulation almost exclusively limited to the cities in which they are pub- 
lished, and to a certain amount of the surrounding territory. 

In cities or towns of from ten to twenty thousand inhabitants, news- 
papers printed therein circulate but little beyond a ten to twenty mile 
boundary line, except where the county is very large in territory, when it 
is fair to presume that a certain portion of the papers are distributed 
throughout the county, provided they are published at the county seat, 
and there are no other towns in the county sufficiently large to support as 
good publications. 

The term country newspapers is intended to apply to daily or weekly 
publications published in cities or towns of loss than twenty thousand pop- 
ulation ; but what is said regarding country papers more or less aptly applies 
to newspapers in general, even though published within the largest cities. 


Any line of goods retailed for household or personal use is sold 
almost exclusively to regular readers of regular local papers. 

In any half-decent community it is fair to assume that, with a fairly 
reputable local newspaper, ninety-nine per cent, of the buyers are regular 
or occasional readers. 

I do not believe that ninety-nine and 99-100 per cent, of the people who 
do not see the local papers have enough brains or money to be trusted 
to purchase anything except the absolute necessities of life. 

The newspaper, then, furnishes the most effective, and I might say 
the only, means of reaching the local public, and it can be set down as an 
unexceptionable rule, that no local dealer or business man can afford not 
to advertise locally, and that nearly nine-tenths of his local advertising 
should be done through the medium of the local newspaper. 

Perhaps the local newspaper has a "patent inside," or a "patent 
outside " ; perhaps its advertising type is poor and its news type in no 
better condition ; perhaps the whole mechanical and editorial work on it 
is done by one man and two boys ; — if all these be so, then the chances 
are that the paper is fully up to the support given it ; for a local newspaper 
is the most correct mirror of the business and social life of the town or 
city, and there are very few editors and publishers who are not willing and 
anxious, and who have not the ability, to make their papers just as good 
as they can with the support given them. 

Perhaps the editor of the local paper may not appear to be much of a 
fellow — there are drones in the journalistic profession as well as in any 
other ; perhaps some particular editor is not up to the average, but 
remember that if he be respectable, and the average country editor is 
certainly up to the level of his community, he sways a power for business 
good or evil. 

Respect the country editor. He may be a crank, — most leaders in 
anything are cranks ; without cranks the universal wheel would stop 
turning; — he may wear poor clothes ; he may live in not half so good a 
house as does the merchant ; but ten chances to one he is intelligent, 


well-read, and knows infinitely more than one-half of the well-dressed 
dudes who smirk behind the counter, wear better clothes than do their 
proprietors, and trade their looks upon the auction block of society. 

The country editor is not often given to decorating the outside, he 
fills the inside ; and if he be given the support he deserves, his family 
may be among the prominent customers at the store. 

The best people in any locality read the local paper, be it ever so poor 
or humble. To the great majority of the local customers it is the one 
locally effective advertising medium bought and paid for. It is paid for, 
and that which costs something to obtain is utilized. It is read, because 
that is the object for which it was purchased. It has influence in its 
field, and an advertisement of ten square inches in it is worth more 
than an acre of circulars. 

There has never been invented an advertising substitute for the news- 
paper ; all else is supplementary, and effective largely when used in 
connection with the legitimate advertisement in the legitimate newspaper. 

The local newspaper has been, and always will be, a necessary visitor 
in every civiHzed family. It is read alike by rich and poor. The ignorant 
rich may scoff at its short-comings, and criticise its style, lack of style, 
and make-up ; but when they say they do not read it, believe them not ; 
they do read it, and the more they find fault with it, the more it proves 
that their reading of it is thorough. Not to read it would deprive them of 
the privilege of kicking. 

A local advertiser has, or ought to have, lOcal standing. He is known, 
or should be known, throughout his field, in a business or professional 
way. His announcements have upon them the stamp of location and 
intimacy ; consequently they often rise to the dignity of local news. If 
he be known, he must keep up the acquaintance through the medium of 
the Press. If he be unknown, he must be introduced to the people 
through the same medium. 

There is something the matter with the retail dealer who cannot utilize 
the advertising columns of the local paper. 


The man who does not find advertising profitable generally finds busi- 
ness unprofitable. If his advertising does not pay, the fault is not generally 
to be laid at the door of the newspaper ; the fault is in the method of 
applying that v^^hich, if applied rightly, must bring in a satisfactory harvest. 

The newspaper must be used intelligently, as anything else must 
be used to bring success. 

It is always well to be careful about the position the advertisement is 
to fill within the coiu)nns of the local newspaper. It is impossible to lay 
down an invariable rule of position, because every paper is made up 
somewhat differently. 

It is, however, obvious that top of column is better than bottom 
of column ; that next to reading matter is preferable to being surrounded 
by other advertisements. A large, well-displayed, and well-written 
advertisement on the first page of a newspaper, even though the entire 
page be occupied by advertisements, is sometimes more effective than the 
same advertisement on the inside pages, though it be at the top of the 
column and next to reading matter. 

The advantage of being next to reading matter depends largely upon 
the position of the reading matter, and its quality. 

A large advertisement is liable to be read in almost any part of the 
paper. A small advertisement, of course, is not so readily seen, and 
should be in a prominent position. 

I think that a five-inch advertisement at the top of the column, and 
near good reading matter, is worth more than a ten-inch advertisement 
entirely surrounded by other advertising. But a double-column advertise- 
ment on the first page, filled with big type and startling announcements, 
would not by any means be worth double what it would be if it occupied 
an inside position ; for a large advertisement is very liable to be seen, 
no matter where it is placed ; but of course it is advisable to place it in the 
best light possible. 

It is well to have the advertisement on the same page as appears the 
local matter, or on the page facing it. The local matter in a paper is that 


which is first sought for and most thoroughly read ; and if the advertise- 
ment be so close to it that, even while reading, the eye cannot avoid the 
advertisement, the contents of the advertisement are continually forcing 
their way into the mind of the reader, though he be unconscious of it. 

The newspaper is the connecting link between seller and buyer. 
It is the messenger of invitation, the master of ceremonies. It carries 
the words of the seller to the buyer, wherever he or she may be, whether 
in the cottage, or in the hotel, in the drawing-room, the boudoir, the 
kitchen, or the basement. It is the Mercury of advertising, instantaneous 
in transit, possessing the key which will unlock every door shut against 
the advertiser, and which sometimes assumes to be shut against 


A little cash will tell the story everywhere." 

Of the about sixteen thousand five hundred periodical publications in 
the United States and Canada, an intelligent calculation gives about four 
thousand of them as having an average circulation near five hundred 
copies per issue ; and nearly six thousand are given as printing at each 
issue in the vicinity of one thousand copies. Probably not more than 
four thousand possess a regular issue of over one thousand copies, and there 
are less than one thousand which sell more than ten thousand copies at 
an issue. 

Except in the larger cities, weekly papers have generally a much larger 
circulation than have the dailies, and it is fair to assume that the average 
first class country weekly paper sells about one thousand copies at each 
issue, although there are many country papers which have circulations from 
fifteen hundred to as high as three thousand, but the latter figure is not 
enjoyed by probably over one hundred purely country newspapers. A 
very few country papers print regular editions of five thousand copies. 

Small circulations, I grant, yet every copy of a local paper goes into 
the household of probable customers, and each copy is undoubtedly read 
by from two to a dozen different people, raising the paper's reading cir- 
culation to many times the actual number printed. 

I give these low figures simply because I believe them to be facts, not 
to depreciate the value of advertising space, for I thoroughly believe that, 



to the local advertiser, the space occupied in the local paper is almost 
invariably worth that which is charged for it. 

Fair rates for advertising in local weekly papers range between three 
cents and five or six cents per line, for transient advertising. 

A column is an indefinite article. It may mean fifteen inches of space, 
and it may refer to over twice that amount. A column, say twenty four 
inches in length, is worth in the country newspaper, from one hundred 
dollars to three hundred dollars per year, on regular full column yearly 
contracts. In about half of the country papers the former figure, or 
about it, should be taken. In the better class of country papers, that is, 
papers published in the larger towns and at county seats, the price, per 
column, per year, may run from one hundred dollars to two hundred dol- 
lars, and in the better class of this better class, three hundred dollars 
would be considered about the highest justifiable rate to be charged. 

A half column of space is rated from five per cent, to ten per cent, pro- 
portionately more than a whole column space is rated, and less space than 
a half column should be charged at about twenty per cent, additional 
proportionately, over the full column rates. 

The old rule of one cent per line per thousand of circulation, applies to 
the larger papers, and could not be properly accepted by the local papers, 
which are hardly worth so high a rate to the general advertiser, and are 
worth very much more to the local advertiser, to whom their advertising 
space is invaluable. 

In local daily papers, advertising space is worth from one-half to two- 
thirds the price of that in the weeklies ; or conversely, an advertisement 
in a daily is worth three times as much, or more, per week as it would be 
worth in a weekly, circulation and quality conditions corresponding. 

Sunday, semi-weekly, and tri-weekly papers are generally classed with 
dailies, so far as advertising rates are concerned. 

Daily papers in cities of from twenty to one hundred thousand i)opula- 
tion, are liable to possess very good circulations, say from one to ten thou- 
sand, or even fifteen thousand, in exceptional cases, and can command 


advertising rates of from five cents to ten or fifteen cents a line for 
transient advertisements, and from three hundred to one thousand dol- 
lars per column of twenty-four inches per year, vi^ith proportionate increase 
for smaller space and less duration of advertising. 

The few large city dailies which claim to print, and very likely do, from 
thirty to over one hundred thousand copies a day, command from twelve 
and one-half cents a line for "wants," to twenty-five or thirty cents a 
line for run of paper, and from that to one dollar a line for cuts and 
preferred position. 

Quantity of circulation should be first considered, next quality. Quan- 
tity amounts to little without quality, and there is no use advertising in 
papers which have only quality. 

An advertiser has no more right to beat down the advertising rates 
quoted him by the publisher, than has the publisher a right to demand dis- 
counts on flour or dress goods. 

The space in the local newspaper is merchandise, as much so as table- 
cloths or wash-tubs. The publisher has it for sale, and he expects, and 
should obtain for it, a fair price. 

The popular idea that an editor is glad to fill up his paper with any- 
thing and everything is absurd. Very few papers, even small country 
papers, are issued which could not throw away all the matter in type and 
find enough live copy to reset the entire paper. 

The editor is always glad to get news, and he is ever ready to recip- 
rocate for favors done. He sells his space as the merchant sells merchan- 
dise. He wants the equivalent for it in cash, as the merchant wants his 
pay in cash. 

The bread and butter of the publisher comes from his paper, and he 
can no more afford to give away space in it, than can the merchant afford 
to present the publisher with arm-chairs or cooking stoves. 

Do not pay for advertising in trade. Buy for cash, sell for cash. A 
trade advertisement is seldom satisfactory to the contracting parties. It 
lowers the standard of the goods, it lowers the respect of the publisher for 


the advertiser, even if the publisher himself suggests the trade. 

There is no objection to presenting the editor with a suitable gift in 
recognition of his many journalistic courtesies, but let the gift be given as 
a present, and not with the explicit understanding that the editor shall 
immediately return its value in printers' ink. The editor will undoubtedly 
pay for it three times over, if he be not asked to do it ; and then the mer- 
chant gets the benefit of the advertising without paying more than a third 
of what it is worth, and the good-will of the editor for the generosity and 

But advertising, pure and simple, should be paid for in cash, and only in 
cash. The merchant should treat the publisher as he treats another mer- 
chant ; buy the advertising space as he buys anything else ; buy it with 
the same shrewdness that he displays in purchasing his stock in trade. 
Ask for any reasonable discount for cash. But he has no right to assume 
that advertising space is not merchandise, and that it can be purchased 
for little or nothing, if little or nothing be offered for it. 

One of the best tests of the value of a newspaper is the rigidity of 
its advertising rates. The better the paper the less variable are its rates, 
and the smaller its discounts. 

The publisher who will undercut legitimate discounts is doing it simply 
because he is not able to get the regular rates, with of course the custom- 
ary discounts for time and space ; and if he be not able to get those rates, 
it is sometimes fair to presume that his advertising is not worth what is 
asked for it. 

A publisher who will do unusual cutting in rates is open to suspicion, 
and even at the most absurd cut-rates, the advertiser had better hesitate 
before placing his advertisement, until he can ascertain the reason for the 
unusual cut. 


" 'Tis not so much how much is said, — 'tis how it's said." 

Brevity is the soul of advertising, as it is of about everything else. It 
takes a genius to describe the contents of the counters of a dry goods, or 
of any other kind, of a store, in a hundred words ; but any one, who under- 
stands the use of pen and ink, can describe anything, if he have the dispo- 
sal of the space oi a book to do it in. But the reader may peruse the 
whole of the one, and not attempt to read a part of the other. 

Do not set before the prospective reader more than he will read. A 
steady, small stream will fill the bucket to the required fulness. A stream 
larger than the bucket will fill it, and slop out half of the contents. 

There would not be the slightest objection to cramming the advertise- 
ment, if the reader would digest it ; but the trouble, is the reader will not 
even taste enough of it to learn its flavor. 

An advertisement is a silent drummer ; and people in general imagine 
themselves to be opposed to drummers ; and there is certainly an appear- 
ance of objection with a proportion of the community against advertising 
in general ; consequently it is absolutely necessary that the advertisement 
should be so written that the reader will absorb it before he has time to 
remember the conventional apathy he may suppose he possesses. 

The wording of an advertisement frequently rises to the dignity of 
literary character ; indeed, it is easy, if one possess the ability, to throw 


48 ^1 B O UT AD I 'ER TISING. 

considerable literary work into the construction of a single headline ; 
and right here it is opportune to say, that the average business man con- 
siders himself too much occupied to give the time to the proper construc- 
tion of effective advertising. 

It is no depreciation of a business man's ability to say that few 
have, or can have, in justice to business affairs, the trained knowledge 
sufificient to make the advertisement as effective as it would be, if he 
should possess that which the present business methods have so far 
refused to teach him. 

I do not mean to imply that the business man can not write, or learn to 
write, a good advertisement. He can so learn, if he will but give intelligent 
attention to this essential department of his business ; and any business 
man, no matter how busy, to be a successful advertiser, must study the 
methods of advertising thoroughly and carefully, or else engage the pro- 
fessional services of some one competent to write and direct his advertising. 

In many cases the employing, regularly or occasionally, of such trained 
assistance, is to be recommended. 

The value of a well written advertisement can hardly be over estimated. 

There are plenty of cases on record where the composition of a single 
effectively written advertisement has been worth several hundred dollars. 

The idea, resulting in the words, " Fanny Fern writes for the Ledger," 
as applied to the advertising of that famous national publication, was the 
lio-htning stroke of a genius. These words alone were made to fill entire 
pages in the leading daily papers, and America wondered at the extrava- 
gance of space, and bought the Ledger. 

If head-lines be used, and they are recommended for nine-tenths 
of the advertisements, the burden of the advertisement hangs on the 

While the advertiser should preserve a certain personal identity in his 
advertisements, it is not generally advisable to continue in the same line 
of style and make up. 

There are some lines of goods which occasionally require extended 


description, but when long descriptions occur it is well not to have them 
run more than once or twice in succession ; and the intervening adver- 
tisements should be particularly short and crispy. 

Books are published to be sold, and are sold. The purchaser buys the 
book because he wants to read it, and yet every attention is given to the 
typographical make-up of the book, to have it set up in clear, readable 
type, with plenty of space between the lines, and frequent paragraphs. 

If so much attention be given to the typographical appearance of that 
which will be read somewhat irrespective of its appearance, should not 
more care be exercised in the construction of the advertisement, to 
induce people to read that which they imagine they do not really care 
much about reading ? 

The common form of writing advertisements is to put big statements 
into big type. 

'Generally a statement cannot be too broad and strong, if it be true. 

There is no objection to using very large display type, provided there 
are not too many similarly prominent lines in the same advertisement. 

Large type lines should never be close together. They should either 
be separated by blank space or by printed matter in small type. ' 

The value of large type is dependent on its contrast with the type 
preceding or following it. Frequently the smallest type, by its very 
minuteness, if there be no large type in the same advertisement, makes 
nearly as conspicuous a line as one set in the largest type. 

In the majority of advertisements, display lines are used, and prob- 
ably always will be used. They may not look artistic, but there is no 
denying that there is a business look about large type, which cannot be 
readily produced in any other way. 

If the writer have the ability, and the printer the type to set it in, the 
literary or artistic form of composing advertisements is to be emphatically 
recommended. A distinct and original style should be persisted in, and 
there is absolutely no limit to the possibilities which are open to the 
practised writer of artistic and literary advertisements. 


It is easier to write a displayed advertisement than any other style of 
advertisement, and unless one understands the composition of the so- 
called higher grade of advertisement writing, he had better confine him- 
self to the common form of displayed advertisement, bearing in mind that 
brevity is the one great consideratum. 

An advertisement can be instructive in a general way, so as to contain 
positive information, which will be read and looked for, and which cannot 
be read without the substance of the advertisement permeating the 
remotest recesses of the reader's brain. 

The more an advertisement appears not to be an advertisement, the 
better it is, sometimes, not always, for a business advertisement, written 
for business, about business, will bring business. 

Direct advertising is generally better than indirect, but a combination 
of all of the methods is the most effective, and the advertiser should strive 
to follow a style of advertising different from the common style prevalent 
in his territory. 

The personal letter form of advertising, which tells in a gossipy, sprightly 
style, with more or less of description, of the goods offered for sale, is to be 
recommended for frequent use. In this style of advertisement use. few 
paragraphs, a modest heading, or no heading at all, and Old Style Roman, 
or Full Face type, is generally the best style of type to set it in. The 
size of the type should not be smaller than will comfortably fill the space, 
unless the advertiser be willing to pay for considerable blank space at 
the top and bottom of the reading matter. The blank space is not wasted, 
for it not only helps the typographical appearance of the advertisement, 
but by seeming to make the advertisement so brief, increases the chances 
of its being read. 

The negative form of writing advertisements, that is, apparently run- 
ning down the advertiser, provided it be done so that it is plainly in- 
tentional, is occasionally beneficial. 

For instance," Brown makes the best candy out of the poorest molasses." 

Or, the dry goods dealer might announce, "The poorest calicoes at the 


liighest prices. No attention paid to customers. Shrinkable ginghams 
warranted not to wash. Ten thousand handkerchiefs, not worth five 
cents apiece, at twelve dollars a dozen." 

This class of advertisement must be written in the broadest style of 
exaggeration, and should appear not more than a few times during the 
year ; and never should be used at all if the advertiser have doubts about 
the way the public will understand it. 

If the advertiser or writer possess a humorous vein, he can often use it 
to advantage; but before attempting anything in this line, he must be 
sure that his humor is genuine, not imaginary. No matter how good the 
humor is, the shorter it is the better ; and the advertisement should be all 
humorous, or not humorous at all. 

Rhymed advertisements are often effective, and as they are little used, 
have the appearance of originality. But if reputation be valued, do 
not indulge in this sort of advertising, unless the services can be 
secured of one versed in the art of versification. Poor prose is bad 
enough, but poor rhyme is an abomination. 

The reproduction of newspaper squibs, pertinent to the goods adver- 
tised, is a new and very effective form of advertisement. The squibs 
should closely resemble the original, including the heading of the paper 
from which they may be taken. Plenty of white space should be allowed, 
and the advertisement should contain only the newspaper article. 

The same newspaper advertisement should never run over a month 
without change; better change it every time. If something new cannot 
be picked out, rewrite the old. 

Make every advertisement readable. 

Remember that the advertisement should be written for the eye of the 
reader, not as a means of personal gratification to the advertiser. 

Do not have half the advertisement blow, the balance bluster. 

Do not allow two display lines to come together. 

Have all of the sentences short. 

Always see a proof of the advertisement. 


Do not have the firm name and address occupy more than two or three 
lines of medium sized type. 

A dictionary is a necessity in every office, particularly so where adver- 
tisements are written. An unabridged dictionary is a mine of informa- 
tion, and is a material aid to good composition. 

Briefly, the formula for writing an advertisement consists of brevity, 
originality, typographical appearance, shrewdness, something to say, and 
plenty of space to say it in. 


" A newsy puff is never called a puff by name, but is a hundred times a puff in worth." 

The man who wrote the first advertisement probably engineered the 
printing of the first news item referring to the goods advertised. 

To France is due the origin of the word puff. In that country, years 
ago, a certain prevalent style of head dress was called /^^/^ In arrange- 
ment it consisted of the hair of the head raised high over cushions of 
horse hair, and ornamented with objects indicative of the taste of the 
wearer, or to display historical incidents which had occurred in the 
wearer's family. 

The Duchesse d' Orleans, on her first appearance at Court after the 
birth of a son and heir, adorned her pouff with the representation of the 
nursery, the baby, a cradle, the nurse, and a basket fall of playthings, all 
exquisitely executed in gold and enamel. 

Madame d' Egmont, the Due de Richelieu's daughter, after her father 
had taken Fort Mahon, wore, in commemoration of the event, on her 
pouff, a little fortress worked in diamonds, with mechanically working 
sentinels run by clock-work. 

This advertisement of personal victory appears to be the origin of the 
present wordpiiff, which is now applied to that class of reading matter in 
the newspapers. 

The use of the puff is perfectly legitimate, and its universal use the 
best evidence of its importance. 



The fundamental principles of direct advertising apply conversively to 

Puffing, to be worth much of anything, should be indirect. The 
words, " The best goods are at Brown's," are hardly worth the paper they 
cover in the newspaper. 

If the business of the puff is transparent, then the contents spill upon 
rocky ground. 

The puff should be news of some sort, with as much cat-in-the-meal 
about it, as it will absorb without showing it upon the surface. 

For instance, a dry goods store is advertising attractions in cottons. 
If the item in the local columns of the newspaper says that " Brown's cot- 
tons are unequalled, and everybody should buy them ; " practically no 
benefit is derived. But if the item read that 

"Truckman Smith's largest wagon was obliged to make four trips 
from the depot to convey the first shipment of Brown's cottons " ; or that 
" One of the largest wagons in town passed up Main Street four times 
yesterday, loaded with cotton cloth, each package being marked Brown & 
Co. " ; the people read the item as news ; and nine-tenths of them 
believe it to be news, uninfluenced by the advertiser. 

Of course a puff is instantly recognized by the experienced advertiser^ 
but the experienced advertiser is in the vast minority. It is only necessary 
to so regulate the substance of the puff that none save the experienced 
will readily discov^er the intentional import of it. 

If the puff should be recognized as a puff, provided it did not contain 
misstatement, no injury is done, save that a large proportion of its value 
to the advertiser is lost. 

I do not believe a great deal in the benefit to be derived from the 
disappointment or surprise sort of a puff ; that is, the article which opens 
upon some readable subject, interests the reader at the start, continues 
the interest, and climaxes it with a bald-headed reference to the article 
advertised. Such a puff disgusts the reader, and is very liable to coun- 
teract the intention of its writer. 

PUTFS. 55 

So construct the puff that the puffy part of it naturally becomes a part 
of its substance without apparent intention. For instance the following 
is at worst semi-local news : 

" For over a month customers at Brown Brothers' dry goods store have 
noticed the huge pile of Himalayan shawls which rise from the shawl 
counter. Yesterday Mr. John Brown offered a half holiday to the clerk 
who guessed the nearest to the total retail price of the shawls contained 
in the pile. The guesses ran from $500 to $1,500, and Mr. William 
Williams won by a guess of $800, which was within $7.50 of the correct 
answer, the pile containing 201 shawls, with an average price of about four 
dollars, the cheapest shawl being marked $1.75, and the most expensive 

People will read the above item, and the local paper is glad to print it, 
yet it contains a most pronounced puff, calling especial attention to the 
stock of shawls at Brown Brothers' store ; speaks particularly of the big 
pile, which will attract people ; tells the average price of the shawls ; the 
lowest price of the shawls ; and the highest price ; in fact, it gives about 
all the information desired, without appearing to give it at all. 

The advertiser should have his business constantly before the public, 
always in the advertising columns, and as often as possible among the 

No store can exist which is not equal to creating newsy puffs ; for the 
motion of the business is constantly turning out newsy items, which 
simply need collecting and adapting, to answer the triple purpose of being 
acceptable to the newspaper, reader, and advertiser. 

One two-line squib in the news columns is worth a dozen in the regu- 
lar column of puffs. 

Keep out of the company of puffs. Have all the puffs so newsy that 
they are worth a place with the news. 

Have nothing appear in the reading columns of the paper which can 
disgust the sensible reader. There are some people in every community 
who will be disgusted at anything. It is useless to attempt to avoid their 


criticisms, but it is essential to avoid the criticisms of the average 

The puff in no way takes the place of the legitimate advertisement ; 
it is simply supplementary to it, and without the regular advertisement, 
would be worth but little, if anything. 

The character and standing of a firm can be very much increased by 
judiciously arranged puffs, and it can be very much injured by indiscriminate 
puffy puffs. 

If the advertiser be able to write his own puffs, it is better for him to 
do it himself. If he cannot write them, it is generally easy to find some 
employee who has the ability of constructing news items. In case such an 
employee cannot be found, the editor will dash them off by the yard, 
but the advertiser should see to it that no puff whatever appears in the 
local papers, unless he has seen the manuscript, or a proof of it. Many an 
editor, as a return courtesy, has written puffs which have been direct 
injury, when the opposite was intended. 

The extensive advertiser can obtain one or more newsy puffs in every 
issue of the paper in which he advertises, and a little care and attention 
by himself and employees will make it a very easy matter to construct as 
many of these newsy puffs as any local paper will feel justified in printing, 
and as many as it would be advantageous for the advertiser to use. 

Testimonials are a form of puff, and, when occasionally used, very 
effective ones. 

Testimonials must be short, and come to the point in a pointed way. 
If the writer of a testimonial does not construct it so that it is readable, 
in most cases better not print it. Generally, the writer will not object to 
a reasonable amount of editing, that is, putting the testimonial into 
presentable shape. 

Testimonials can be used in the direct advertisement, or can be 
printed in the news columns. 

The following samples of puffs are presented as aids in writing newsy 
local or otherwise interesting items, which will be acceptable to the 



avearage newspaper reader, are not too far removed from the news or semi- 
literary limit to be consistently used by the newspaper, and which contain 
sufficient of the meat of advertising to be of benefit to the advertiser. 

The samples are set in leaded Bourgeois type, to the measure of 13^^ 
Picas, and consequently occupy about twice as much space as would the 
same matter when printed in the reading columns of the large city daily, 
which uses solid Nonpareil type for its reading matter ; and about one- 
third more space than they would in the Minion type of the few high-grade 
weeklies which use it ; and about fifteen per cent, more space than if 
placed among the locals in the average country paper where Brevier type 
is generally used. 

The substance of any one sample puff can generally be easily adapted 
to fit a line of business entirely foreign from the one mentioned in the 

Some of the sample puffs have headings ; some have not. Some 
newspapers use headings for news matter extensively ; some make up a 
majority of the reading columns in paragraphs, with few head lines. 

The puff should be set to conform to the typographica.1 " make-up " of 
the news arrangement of the paper. 

Hoe for Everybody. 

A reporter of the Herald, while waiting 
at the agricultural warehouse of Brown 
Brothers, noticed the large number of 
hoes, shovels, and rakes there for sale. 
Curiosity prompted him to approximate 
their total number, which resulted in about 
450 hoes, 725 rakes, and 650 shovels, 
making a grand total of over one implement 
for every house within ten miles of the 
Herald o^zt. 

Senator Morgan is having plans drawn 
by Architect Smith for a thirty thousand 
dollar stone residence to be erected on his 

land, on West Street. ( Here follow with 
description of the house to be erected. 
It is sometimes best to give the exterior 
description first, and then in a week or 
two publish a description of the interior.) 

Hon. John L. Black has purchased 
William Smith's painting of the Norwegian 
Girl. It is understood that the price paid 
was twenty-two hundred dollars. 

The premises. No. 42 West Street, were 
sold at auction, yesterday, by Messrs. Wil- 
liam Williams & Co., to Mr. William 
Black, of Dalton, for twenty-eight hundred 
and fifty dollars. 



** The Willows '* At Auction. 

The old homestead, for over fifty years 
known as " The Willows," will be sold at 
auction next Saturday morning. The 
mansion contains fifteen rooms, including 
double parlors, a library, eight chambers, 
and one of the largest of dining halls. 
The house was put in thorough repair two 
years ago, at which time all the modern 
improvements were added. The grounds 
contain nearly five acres, two of which, 
in front of the house, are of well cultivated 
lawn grass. The orchard has in it thirty 
bearing apple and pear trees, and there is 
over an acre plowed for kitchen gardening. 
l^Iessrs. Smith & Smith, the auctioneers, 
will give full particulars about the place, 
which is one of the most remarkable 
opportunities for investment offered for 
many years. 

A Gingerbread Man. 

Mr. William Williams, for five years 
superintendent of the Whitetown bakery, 
has leased Mr. John Parker's West Street 
cottage, and will move, with his family, to 
town, next week. Mr. Williams will have 
charge of the gingerbread department of 
Black & White's South Street bakery. It 
will be recalled that Mr. Williams was 
awarded the silver medal for the best 
gingerbread exhibited at the recent Inland 
County Fair. 

A Big Check. 

The largest check which has ever been 
drawn by an Inland County capitalist, was 
recently received by the Browntown bank. 
It was for $137,000, and was unexpected, 
but was honored on presentation at the 
bank, the bank giving, as requested, a 
draft on New York for the amount. 

Treasurer Brown, of the Browntown 
Institute for Savings, states that 3,208 

persons hold deposits in his bank. The 
average deposit amounts to about ?275 ; 
the largest being $1,000, the maximum 
limit; and the smallest one dollar. These 
figures speak well for the frugality of 
Browntown people and their neighbors. 

Mr. , well, perhaps it's just as well 

not to give names, went sound asleep, 
yesterday, while being shaved at Brown's 
tonsorial parlors. It must have been an 
easy shave. 

William Smith, of Clark & Co.'s. shoe 
store, rides between his home and office 
upon his bicycle, three times a day. 

A Bicycle Tour. 

Messrs. John Smith, John Jones, and 
John Black have just returned from an 
extended bicvcle tour through Ohio. 
They were gone four weeks, and the 
actual distance ridden by each of the party 
exceeded eight hundred m'.Ies. They 
report a most magnificent time, and are 
already making arrangements for another 
tour in September. The three gentle- 
men rode light roadsters, which 

Ihey purchased last season of William 
Shakespeare, the local agent for Brown- 

John Jones, the local bicycle agent, was 
the happiest man at the bicycle races on 
the Agricultural Fair Grounds' track yes- 
terday, for the winning men in each of the 
six bicycle contests rode . 

The Browntown Rifle Association has 
voted to use the All-Right guns exclu- 
sively in the future. 

Colonel Smith and Major Jones, with 
their Walker rilies, started. yesterday for a 
huntinii tour of the Black Hills. 



At the last meeting of the Browntown 
base ball club, it was voted to play only 
with the Smilh & Smith regulation ball. 

A No. 26 Boot. 

The biggest boot ever seen in Brovvn- 
ville is on exhibition at Brown's shoe 
store. It is a No. 26, weighs 15 pounds, 
and is a perfectly formed and serviceable 
boot, being made precisely like the five- 
dollar, hand sewed boots, which are grouped 
around their big brother in Mr. Brown's 
shjw window. 

The Weaving: of Carpets. 

Few people have any idea of the intri- 
cate machinery necessary to the weaving 
of carpets, and the marvellous artistic 
designing ability required of the men who 
draw the original patterns. [Here follow^ 
with a brief description of how carpets 
are made, stating the number of threads in 
the carpet loom, the colors, and any other 
interesting Information.] Brown Brothers, 
of West Street, have one hundred differ- 
ent designs, which well exhibit the progress 
of the carpet industry. 

Everybody knows how cheerful it makes 
a room look to have one or more handsome 
rugs upon the floor, whether the room be 
covered with carpets or mattings, or is 
painted. A pretty rug need not neces- 
sarily be expensive. Brown Brothers have 
fifty or more designs in rugs, at prices 
ranging from one dollar up to twenty 
dollars or more. 

Many of the best families are realizing 
how delightfully cool and clean a chamber 
or other room looks covered with straw 
matting, and the housekeeper well knows 
how easy it is to sweep this kind of floor 
covering. Brown Brothers, of West Street, 
are exhibiting a dozen patterns, many of 

them so low in price that a floor can be 
carpeted with them at a cost hardly ex- 
ceeding the cost of painting the floor. 

Hotel Vendome is being recarpeted from 
office to garret. To cover the floors will 
require upwards of ten thousand yards of 
the different grades of carpets. The con- 
tract was awarded to Brown Brothers 
against six competitors. 

Cashier Perkins, of the Clarendon Na- 
tional Bank, has purchased an elegant new 
buggy. It was especially made for him 
by Messrs. White & Black. 

Rev. William Williams, D. D., while 
driving between Methodist Centre and 
Congtown, yesterday, was run into by a 
heavy coal team. Although the blow was 
a hard one, the reverend gentleman's car- 
riage sustained no serious injury. Dr. 
Williams purchased the carriage six years 
ago, of Brown Brothers, and the present 
accident caused the first repairs necessary. 

Three Hundred Overcoats. 

The famous woollen mills of Ware em- 
ploy four hundred hands, and fully half of 
that number have spent their entire time, 
during the past three months, in the man- 
ufacture of the celebrated allvvool Conti- 
nental goods. Brown Brothers, the West 
Street clothiers, expect to sell, this spring, 
three hundred overcoats made of this 
durable cloth. 

It is estimated that fully seventy-five 
per cent, of the male inhabitants of Brown- 
town wear ready-made garments. The 
present quality of the goods in this class 
of clothing, and the fact that any one of 
fair proportions can obtain an excellent 
fit, generally indistinguishable from the 
best custom-made, have done much toward 
makino- the clothins: trade one of the most 



extensive in the countr)-. In the large 
wholesale manufactories, expert cutters 
command as high salaries as five thousand 
dollars a year, and there are a few instances 
where they receive nearly a thousand dol- 
lars a month. The trade in town and 
about has been so heavy, that Brown 
Brothers have just added one thousand 
feet of floorage to their salesrooms, and 
employed three new clerks. 

Five car-loads of coal, each containing 
fifteen tons, arrived in Browntown, 
Wednesday, billed to Brown Brothers. 

The contract for supplying the Brown- 
ville Hotel with coal for the winter has 
been awarded to Messrs. Brown Brothers, 
The gentlemen will put in one thousand 
tons of the well known Forest City coal. 

Confectioner Brown has used over 
three hogsheads of molasses, during the 
last month, in the manufacture of his 
famous Mother Carey's old fashioned 
molasses candy. 

The glass pyramid in Brown Brothers' 
show window is constructed of five hun- 
dred pieces, with over a hundred different 
varieties of glass ware. The retail prices 
of the articles which were required to 
build this remarkable monument, figure 
up to two hundred dollars, yet there are 
in it fifty or more pieces wliicli sell for 
from five to ten cents apiece. 

The Baptist Church was brilliantly 
lighted last evening. The new lamps 
turn night into day. The chandelier and 
side lights are constructed after the pattern 
of the Blazing Star lamp, which so 
brilliantly lights the entrance to Brown's 
crockery and lamp store. 

Ohio, in which place is located the 
famous Cotta crockery works. Mr. 
Brown will combine business with pleas- 
ure, and has already completed arrange- 
ments for two car-loads of crockery ware, 
to arrive in town shortly after his return. 
The contents of the two cars will cover 
three hundred shelves and tables. 

False and Natural. 

Science has removed half of the 
objection to the wearing of false teeth. 
An expert dentist readily adapts the set to 
the facial appearance of the patient, and if 
the work be well done, it is often difficult 
to distinguish the false from the real. 
The other day, at a reunion of a ladies' 
society, for the fun of it, a false teeth vote 
was taken, and it was found that over half 
of the ladies present wore one or more 
false teeth. Probably Dr. George Brown, 
the dentist, could give a great deal of 
interesting matter in regard to the teeth 
worn by the elderly ladies of Browntown, 
among whom he has practiced for the last 
twenty years, but the doctor never tells 
tales ou: of office. 

Senator Brown, of Browntown, is sufli- 
ciently convalescent to be able to enjoy 
short drives. The senator has, until 
recently, been confined to his room for over 
six months, and has suffered four very pain- 
ful and delicate surgical operations. Dr. 
White has attended him throughout his 
sickness, and performed all of the opera- 
tions, three of which were so delicate as to 
require the utmost skill, and so dangerous 
to the life of the patient, that tiie slightest 
mistake would have resulted fatally. 

Three Dresses. 

Mr. John Brown, of the firm of Brown i Hundreds of the ladies of IJrowntown 
& Wliite, is visiting friends in Glasstown, ' are visiting the parlors of Mrs. William 



Brown, on West Street, where are exhibited 
three remarkable gowns. They are 
draped upon wax forms. The first one 
is very pretty and neat, and though no one 
would at first believe it, its construction 
required only six yards of material. The 
next gown was made up with the idea of 
giving the most artistic arrangement to 
the drapery, with the use of eight yards 
of cloth, the usual amount used in mak- 
ing a dress for the average lady. The 
third dress is made of the most elegant of 
imported silk, trimmed in the most expen- 
sive manner. The amount of silk used 
in the construction of this dress was 
forty yards, and the cost of it, including 
the material and work, exceeded $900. 
This last dress is not a sample, but was 
made up to the order of Mrs. Senator 
Black, who will wear it at the mid-winter 
reception to Gov. Jones. 

It has been a very healthy season, yet 
Mr. George Brown, the druggist, has 
put up 406 prescriptions during the last 

Coughing' Children. 

An eminent physician has said that an 
appalling number of little children have 
been prematurely injured, or killed, by so- 
called patent medicines for children. Mr. 
William Williams is a graduate of the 
Chapin Pharmaceutical College, and gives 
his personal attention to the compounding 
of his Harmless cough syrup, which does 
not contain a trace of opiates. This syrup 
may not quiet the coughing child as 
quickly as do some of the questionable 
compounds on the market, but it is as 
harmless as syrup or molasses. 

If every man, woman, and child in 
Brownville should purchase a pair of stock- 
ings at Brown Brothers' store, this enter- 
prising firm would have enough stockings 

left to cover the pedal extremities of all 
the licensed dogs in town. 

Five Miles of Handkerchiefs 

are a good many, yet one of our local 
mathematicians has figured that the new 
lot of handkerchiefs recently arrived at 
Brown & Co.'s store, will, if laid side by 
side, reach from here to Nextville, five 
miles away. 

One thousand yards of the different 
grades of cotton cloth arrived yesterday at 
Brown Brothers' store. A local mathema- 
tician has figured that this cloth will cover 
the sleepers of the railroad track between 
the depot and Brown Avenue, a distance 
of nearly half a mile. 

Over a million feet of spool cotton is 
waiting to be sold on the thread counter of 
Brown Brothers' store. 

Immaculate Table Linen. 

There is nothing more appetizing than a 
well arranged table, and the quality and 
whiteness of the table linen is the first 
consideration. Brown Brothers have just 
placed upon their counters an immense 
stock of table-cloths and napkins. A fine 
damask table-cloth, with a dozen napkins to 
match, are offered for eight dollars ; and if 
the lady desire, she can get the whole 
value of her money by paying as high as 
twenty-five dollars. The firm are showing 
a dozen varieties of tea and after-dinner 
cloths, at prices ranging from two dollars 
to twelve dollars, with napkins to match, 
from sixty cents to three dollars a dozen. 

By actual measurement, there are ten 
thousand yards of the different qualities of 
ladies' cloth at Brown Brothers' store — a 
sufficient amount to cut over a thousand 
dress patterns. 



Eminent physicians believe in the fre- 
quent change of underwear, and, fortu- 
nately, underwear is very inexpensive; for 
instance, enough underwear for all neces- 
sary change can be purchased at Brown 
Brothers for a ten-dollar bill, and the 
quality good enough to wear two years. 

One of the prettiest, and certainly one 
of the most necessary, commodities for 
the lady's toilet table is a plush Imed toilet 
and manicure set. Brown Brothers are 
offering, this week, a set arranged in a 
handsome plush case, containing hair- 
brush, comb, nail-polisher, scissors, and 
the other articles which properly go with 
the set, all for two dollars. The box and 
articles, although not expensively made, 
are as durable and as serviceable as those 
which cost ten or fifteen dollars. 

A Bijf Catch of Trout. 

Brown Brothers, of South Street, have 
on ice ten dozen of the finest trout ever 
seen in Brownville. The fish weie caught 
in Placid Brook, in the Androscoggin 
woods. The gamey fish average a pound 
in weight, and there are three shining fel- 
lows which tip the scales at two pounds 
and six ounces each. 

It is remarkable how the people do 
crowd the five and ten cent stores, and yet 
not so remarkable when is considered the 
innumerable amount of useful and fancy 
things which can be purchased at these 
prices. By actual count, yesterday, 6i I 
people made purchases at Brown's five cent 

The floral locomotive, which occupied 
the honorary place of the centre of the 
table at the recent banquet of railway con- 
ductors, was one of the most remarkable 
designs ever constructed. It was made up 

entirely of pinks, requiring in its construc- 
tion over five thousand flowers. The soci- 
ety has tendered a vote of thanks to Mr. 
George Brown, the West Street florist, for 
the magnificent gift. 

Mrs. Brown, wife of Senator George 
Brown, is considered the handsomest 
woman in Washington society. At the 
recent Presidential reception she wore a 
magnificent Paris made gown of heavy 
cream colored silk, trimmed wi h point 
lace, and in her corsage was a large bunch 
of Jacqueminot roses, which flowers appear 
to be the fashion with the society ladies 
of Washington. Brown Brothers, the 
West Street florists, have in their green- 
house, over two thousand buds of these 
exquisite flowers, ready to burst o^jen. 

A car load of flour, and a thousand 
bushels of grain, have just been received 
at Brown Brothers' feed store, on West 

Five hundred barrels of Crescent City 
flour arrived in town yesterday. Every 
barrel was billed to Brown Brothers. 
This flour contains the whole wheat, and 
in nutriment is far superior to the regular 
grades of bolted flour. Dr. William 
White, the eminent New York physician, 
in a paper before the State Meilical 
Society, highly recommended the use of 
wholewheat flours, especially to the ])rofes- 
sional workers, whose brains and nervous 
energies are recuperated by the phosphates 
contained in these flours. 

Fifty boxes of oranges are piled up in 
the rear of Brown Brothers' West Street 
fruit store. The fruit is in prime co.i- 

Grapes hive never been chea])er or 
more delicious tlian thev are this season. 



Brown Brothers have just received a 
hundred boxes of Concord and Delaware 
grapes. Yesterday, the same firm received 
twenty-five boxes of Malaga grapes, and 
a dozen large boxes from California, con- 
taining the finest grapes from the southern 
Calif ornian vineyartls. 

This season there will be about fifteen 
different styles of gentlemen's collars, and 
Brown Brothers have just received three 
hundred dozen, representing an assort- 
ment of all the styles. 

A man may be known by the stockings 
he wears, and when one sees a fine appear- 
ing, durable stocking, there is reason to 
believe that it came from the enterprising 
store of Brown Brothers. 

Mixed colored lawn ties are much in 
fashion. Brown Brothers have in stock 
over a thousand of this class of neck 
wear, representing over thirty designs. 

The Whist Epidemic. 

Browntown society people almost pos- 
sess a monomania for progressive whist. 
Tuesday evening there were no less than 
fifteen progressive whist parties in town. 
The combination checker, chess, and card 
tables, which Brown Brothers offer as a 
specialty in furniture, are so inexpensive 
that no one who enjoys games can afford 
to be without one. 

Younjf Man, Get Married. 

Why should any young man hesitate 
about getting married when four hundred 
dollars in cash will purchase all that is 
necessary to furnish six rooms, and the 
furnishings be of first class, though inex- 
pensive, material ? The black walnut cham- 
ber set which Brown Brothers recommend 
for persons of moderate means, who con- 

template housekeeping, is one of the 
handsomest of durable sets of furniture. 
The dining room tables are square cor- 
nered, well polished, and well made, and 
the chairs strong and comfortable. The 
parlor furniture is handsome, rich looking, 
and will wear in any house ten years, and 
the balance of the four hundred dollar 
outfit is proportionately as pretty and 

While in Brown Brothers' furniture store, 
yesterday, a representative of the Herald 
counted no less than a dozen evidently 
engaged couples, and immediately returned 
to the Herald o^ce, and und,er " markets " 
wrote, " Matrimonial stock is quoted at 

Some one who knows says that there 
are forty-nine Browntown ladies who own 
seal-skin cloaks, and that there are 4.308 
Browntown ladies who do not own them, 
but want to. Brown Brothers, the fur- 
riers, are selling serviceable seal-skins as 
low as two hundred dollars. 

If this cold weather continues, even the 
men will have to wear muffs. Evidently 
Brown Brothers, tiie furriers, think that 
that is what the men are coming to, by the 
way they are carrying such an immense 
stock of these absolutely necessary com- 
modities of the lady's out-of-door wardrobe. 

The steam pipes in Colonel Wellington's 
house burst at 12 o'clock last mght, and 
the lower part of the house was completely 
filled with steam. The colonel immediately 
stepped to the telephone, called up the 
house of Mr. George Brown, the West 
Street steam fitter, and in less than fifty 
minutes the damage was repaired, and the 
quietness of night settled over the Wei- 
ll n-iton homestead. 



Said the Ancient Mariner : '■ When I 
married my wife she had twelve buttons 
on her waist and one button on her glove. 
Now she has one button on her waist and 
twelve buttons on her glove." But Brown 
Brothers, the West Street dealers in gloves, 
go a dozen better, for in their window hang 
several pairs of twenty-four button gloves, 
so long that the little schoolboy was not far 
out of the way when he asked, " Mamma, 
why can't you sew a seat in those gloves, 
and let me wear them for snow pants ?" 

The New Jersey Tomato Canning Com- 
pany packed half a million cans of toma- 
toes last season, and of that number 
Brown Brothers, the West Street grocers, 
have one thousand. These tomatoes have, 
for several years, enjoyed the reputation of 
possessing the flavor equal to the fruit 
fresh from the vine. 

There is nothing more appetizing, deli- 
cious, and healthful than hot wheat cakes 
for breakfast, and the All White wheat 
sold by Brown Brothers, is daily baked in 
more than half the cooking stoves in 
Brown town. 

A house without a thermometer is about 
as badly off as a hall without a hat-tree. 
The poorest guide on temperature is the 
feeling of the party who tries to determine 
whether it is too hot or too cold. A man 
may feel cold one day, when the room is 
seventy degrees, and feel warm enough 
another, when the thermometer only 
points to sixty. A good thermometer is 
the only unerring guide, and a good one 
can be purchased for twenty-five cents at 
Brown Brothers' hardware store. 

The harnesses worn by the team which 
drags the tally-ho coach between the 
depot and Taft's Hotel, were made ten 
years ago by Brown Brothers, the harness 

men ; and the cost for repairs during 
that time has not exceeded five dollars. 

There are a thousand dollars' worth of 
straw hats on the big counter in Brown's 
hat store, and some of the hats sell as low 
as ten cents apiece. 

The hats worn by the Crescent Cornet 
Band attract the admiration of everv one 
who sees them. They were specially 
designed by Brown Brothers, the hatters. 

It is estimated that over five hundred 
gentlemen in Inland County are wearing 
the new Harvard hat, designed by Brown 
Brothers. It is a fine appearing hat, dur- 
able, cannot be jammed out of shape, and 
the cold weather attachment is appreciated 
when the mercury is loSt sight of. 

Brown Brothers, of West Street, have 
in their loft five hundred tons of fresh 
Connecticut hay, and over a hundred tons 
of first class straw. 

All of the hay cut on Maple Farm, some 
four hundred acres, has been purchased 
by Messrs. Brown & Co. 

Senator Brown, from Wisconsin, Mayor 
Sumner, of Cambridge, and Colonel 
Walker, of Boston, are stopping at the 
Hotel Bristol. 

The recent banquet given at the Tre- 
mont Hotel, by the Concord Zouaves, far 
exceeded in elaborateness any former 
attempt in Inland County. Landlord 
Jones for over a month has had the 
affair in preparation, and the heartiest 
congratulations on the result are in order. 
There were over one hundred different 
articles mentioned upon the bill of fare, 
and every one of them was cooked and 
served as well as the best French cook 
could have cooked and served it. 



William Smith, the representative of 
the Equitable Fire Insurance Co., has 
settled Brown Brothers' claim of eleven 
thousand dollars insurance, from their 
recent loss, by fire, two days ago. This 
is the quickest settlement which has ever 
been made in this county, so far as 

Life Insurance Agent Smith has placed 
over seventy-five thousand dollars in life 
insurance among Brovvntown people during 
the last week. 

William Williams, Esq., the Dalton 
capitalist, who died last week at his 
Jacksonville winter residence, placed a 
life insurance through Agent Brown, for 
one hundred thousand dollars, just as he 
was departing for Florida, one month ago. 

Fire Insurance Agent Jones states that 
there are only four houses in town which 
are not insured. 

Ten thousand dollars' worth of diamonds 
are exhibited in Brown Bros.' West 
Street jewelry store. 

Watches are regulated free of charge at 
Brown Brothers. The large clock which 
is used for true time, is regulated by wire, 
from Yale University observatory, every 

William Black & Co., the West Street 
jewellers and dealers in clocks, have 
imported this season over five thousand 
dollars' worth of the different grades of 
French time-pieces. 

Free Johnny Cakes. 

It is surprising how many families in 
town are doing their entire cooking upon 
oil stov^es. The present perfection in this 
line of stove manufacture not only makes 

the cooking easier, but it is much more 
economical, for the fuel is burning only 
when the stove is in use. Brown Brothers 
are exhibiting in their window the differ- 
ent sizes of the Walker oil stove. The 
store is always fiilled with ladies to see this 
remarkable cooker in operation. The 
Messrs. Brown present every lady with 
Johnny cakes which are cooked every half 

Brown Brothers, the West Street dealers 
in kitchen furnishing goods, have in stock 
over a ton of flat irons, from the little flat- 
boat shaped affair up to the long tailor's 

Three hundred handkerchiefs, two 
hundred shirts, five hundred pairs of 
stockings, one hundred table-cloths, one 
thousand five hundred pieces of under- 
wear, and five thousand collars and cuffs, 
were washed and ironed at Brown's 
Laundry, during the month of May. 

Lawyer Brown has had the pleasure of 
winning forty cases in the District Court 
during the month of April, and in that 
time he lost only three. 

Hon. William Black has been retained 
as counsel in the celebrated Door Mat 
case, which comes up before the Supreme 
Court, in the January term. 

Brown Brothers have over fifty thousand 
feet of pine lumber in their North Avenue 

The monument erected over the remains 
of the late Senator Black, in the Green- 
wood Cemetery, is one of the most 
exquisite pieces of marble carving among 
the hundreds of fine works of this kind in 
the cemetery. It came from the marble 
works of Smith & Jones. 



Smith Brothers, the market men, have 
just received one hundred pounds of the 
finest Maine venison. 

A ton of freshly dressed beef is hanging 
on the hooks at Brown's Market. 

William Black & Co., the masons, have 
been awarded the contract on the new 
Continental building. 

Green Grove Farm is delivering its 
milk in glass cans. Mr. William Black, 
the superintendent of the farm, has just 
purchased fifty Jersey cows, which will 
arrive on the farm in about two weeks. 

The Concord bonnet is much worn by 
Washington society ladies. Mrs. John 
Black, of West Street, has, in her show 
cases, a dozen of these bonnets, trimmed 
in styles to suit every complexion. 

*' From $2 to $50," are the words of the 
sign which is placed in the show window of 
Mrs. Brown's millinery store. It refers to 
an evolution in prices of bonnets, which are 
illustrated by an exhibition of forty-eight 
of these articles marked from $2 up to $50 
respectively. A sub-sign might be appro- 
priately added, " Bonnets for Everybody," 
for about everybody who wear bonnets 
comes within the scope of the exhibition. 

Miss Cordelia Sumner's beautiful con- 
tralto voice never sounded sweeter, or 
richer, than it did last evening, at the 
Academy of Music, when she sang Miss 
Walker's famous lullaby solo, entitled, 
" Baby Sleeps on Paregoric." Brown 
Brothers, the West Street music men, 
state that this song has been so popular 
in Browntown that they have already sold 
over six hundred copies. 

Mrs. Senator Black has just purchased, of 
Brown Brothers, a Pickering grand piano. 

The parlor organ for the new South 
Street Church parlors has been ordered 
of Brown Brothers. 

William Jones is painting his West 
Street house himself with ready mixed 
paint purchased of Brown Brothers. 

Smith & Co., the painters, have obtained 
the contract for painting the interior of the 
new Academy of Music building. 

Richards & Richards have obtained the 
largest contract for paper-hanging ever 
given in the county. They will do the 
entire work in this line upon the new 
Browntown Hotel, which will require over 
three thousand rolls of paper. 

Fifteen children, of ages ranging from 
six months to four years, were photo- 
graphed at Brown's studio, yesterday. 

Smith Brothers, the plumbers, are doing 
the plumbing work on the new Life Insur- 
ance building. 

The magnificent country seat of the late 
Senator Jones is offered for sale. [Here 
write description of the place.] Full infor- 
mation can be obtained of Joslyn & Rich- 
ards, the West Street real estate agents. 

Three hundred pounds of meat were 
roasted last week to supply the regular 
diners at Brown's restaurant. 

Messrs. Smith & Co. have just put in a 
large Smith & Weston fire-proof safe. 

Destruction of a Will. 

Fourteen of the twenty-six fires in Cleve- 
land, last week, occurred in business blocks, 
and of that latter number, six of the offices 
destroyed had no safe. The losses can 
not be recovered in these cases, and one 
of them is particularly sad. In a desk 
drawer was a roll of papers, among them 



the last will of the late Hon. John White, 
who left over two million dollars. This 
last will was drawn the day before he was 
drowned, and bequeathed half of his prop- 
erty to the new orphans' home, at Good- 
ville. A former will, drawn five years ago, 
left that amount to the Cleveland public 
library. The last will was properly drawn, 
signed, and witnessed, and was temporarily 
placed in the drawer. The substance of 
this will v.-as only known to Mr. White and 
the lawyer who drew it, and, as it is 
destroyed, its contents will not stand in 
law. It is really criminal carelessness 
which places valuable papers outside a 
proper safe, when a good safe can be pur- 
chased at so reasonable a price. Brown 
Brothers, our local safe men, offer a sub- 
stantial fire resisting safe at as low a cost 
as fifty dollars. 

There are supposed to be five hundred 
sewing machines in practical use in town, 
and Manager Smith, of the Wheel and 
Crank Sewing Machine Co., offers to give 
a brand new machine to any one who will 
prove that. he did not sell half of that 

There are probably not exceeding a 
dozen families in town witliout a sewing 
machine. Manager Smith, of the Excelsior 
Sewing Machine Co., reports the sale of 
fifty machines during October. 

Mr. John Black entered upon the duties 
of local agent for the Victor Sewing 
Machine, five years ago. He entered this 
machine in competition at that time, and it 
has taken every first prize offered at the 
county agricultural fairs. 

There were six different makes of sew- 
ing machines exliibited at the Inland 
County fair. The \'ictor was victorious. 

Tliis makes the seventh prize given to 
Manager Black, for the best sewing ma- 
chine, in competitive exhibition. 

Brown Brothers' beautiful boat sleigh, 
the " Frost King," carried a merry party 
to Winterville and back, last evening. 

Initial stationery is absolutely indis- 
pensable to the well kept boudoir writing 
table. Twenty different designs are now 
on the counters of Smith Sc White. 

Bookseller Brown reports the sale of 
over three hundred copies of Colonel 
Shakespeare's remarkable novel of " The 
Slow and the Sure," during the past week. 

Henry Ward Milton's novelette entitled 
"A Man of To-day," has just received its 
fifty-fifth edition. Bookseller Brown has 
presented the Brownville Library with a 
handsomely bound copy of this remarkable 
work of fiction, which is being read by 
every cultivated family in the country. 

Mr. John Brown has contracted with 
Messrs. Black & Co., of West Street, to 
place one of their Save-Coal furnaces in 
each of his six South Street cottages. 

There is no question about the advan- 
tages of the open grate, from a hygienic 
point of view, to say nothing about the 
good cheer it distributes about the room. 
Half of the houses in town could not, 
without great expense, jjut in fireplaces; 
but any family will reap rapt enjoyment 
from one of the Blazing Star open stoves 
of which Brown Brothers show over a 
dozen sizes. 

There are supposed to be a hundred 
men who are sporting bran new spring 
trousers about town. Brown Brothers, 
the West Street tailors, state that they 
have made up this month over one hundred 



pairs without any three being cut from 
the same pattern. 

"The cup which cheers but not inebri- 
ates," — good tea or good coffee, and 
you get both at Brown's tea store. 

Free coffee — for two days. Brown 
Brothers will present everybody who calls 
with a cup of the most delicious coffee, 
made from the famous All-Pure coffee, 
which sells for thirty-five cents a pound. 

An electric motor, of the estimated 
capacity of one-half a horse-power, has just 
been put into Brown's North Street tea 
and coffee house. The machine will 
grind coffee as quick as lightning. 

Somehow water tastes better and seems 
cooler when drank out of the old fashioned 
tin dippers which Brown & Co. are 
making at their West Street tin factory. 

Brownville capitalists are much inter- 
ested in the success of the Rail & Tire 
Railroad. Brown & Brown, the brokers, 
report the sale of si.x hundred shares, at 
$104, for the week ending Saturday. 

The Boston & Pittsfield R. R. has 
not been the cause of a single accident 
since the opening of the road two years 
ago, and the road has run on an average 
of ten trains a day. 

The new 4.30 train on the Whitefield 
& Greenville R. R. is a great convenience 
to ladies who come to town on shopping 

Quick Time. 

Steamer Swift, of the Lake Champlain 
Transportation Co., runs between Brown- 
town and Whiteville in two hours and 
twenty minutes, a little better than at the 
rate of eichteen miles an hour. 

The Comiiig' Excursion. 

Already five hundred tickets have been 
sold for the North shore steamboat excur- 
sion, which occurs on .the twenty-eighth 
inst. The excursionists will pass in full 
view of the fortiiications and islands of the 
harbor. The steamer will run so close to 
the North shore that one can recognize 
the hundreds of magnificent country seats 
which line the aristocratic coast. Star 
Island will be passed within one hundred 
feet. By special arrangement with the 
government superintendent, the fog horns 
on the island will be blown, just as the 
steamer passes. An interesting incident 
of the excursion will be the throwing of 
the mail from the pilot-house deck, as the 
steamer passes Hingham Light, into a net 
hanging just below the light-house entrance. 
The steamer will return to town promptly 
at 6 P. M. The number of tickets has 
been limited to eight hundred, although 
the steamer is licensed to carry twelve 
hundred passengers, for Captain Brown, 
famous for his attention to the comfort of 
his passengers, desires that every one 
should have the opportunity of fully enjoying 
the best of comfort, and an uninterrupted 
view of the magnificent scenery of the 
finest stretch of coast in Eastern waters. 
Ladies and children without escort can 
enjoy the trip, for the best of order is 
maintained on board, and no wines or 
liquors will be sold or allowed to be drank 
on the steamer. The Browntown brass 
band will discourse popular airs, and the 
University Quartette will give a concert 
of college songs on the main deck. 

Dear Little Tliiii'^s. 

Two hundred squirrels, caiHured alive 
in the Maine woods, have been turned 
loose into Summer Grove. Manager 
Smith, of the B. & II. Steamboat Co., 



which controls the grove, has niade 
arrangements to place therein twenty Ver- 
mont deer. 

There is over a mile of ribbon in stock 
at Brown's trimming store. 

Over one hundred thousand buttons, 
representing two hundred and fifty varie- 
ties, are constantly on hand at Brown's. 

Little Lord Fauntleroy is holding daily 
receptions at Brown Brothers' West 
Street store. His lordship is surrounded 
by fifty wax dolls, dressed in the costumes 
of all nations. 

The costume worn by White & Black's 
Santa Claus, actually cost over one hun- 
dred and fifty dollars. Saint Nicholas, 
who, for the last week, has paraded Main 
Street, giving away pretty cards to the 
children, says that the temperature beneath 
his bear-skin coat never goes below 
summer heat in the coldest winter 

Of the dozen or so accidents which have 
been caused by horses slipping upon the 
ice, not one of the animals were shod with 
the Cantslip shoe, which Brown, the 
blacksmith, always shoes the horses with, 
during; the winter months. 


" That he who runs may read." 

Out-of-door advertising properly includes posters, signs, and advertising 
on fences, sides of barns, and other buildings, and painting upon rocks. 

Painting, or cutting any advertising whatever, upon rocks, or other 
works of nature, is direct desecration of the natural beauties of the scenery, 
and should not be indulged in by the advertiser, or permitted by the 
local authorities. 

Large posters stuck upon the bill-boards, and upon the fences and barns, 
are often effective methods of advertising. 

Posters should be used only to announce specific attractions, and 
should contain as few words as possible. 

The type in which the poster is set must be sufficiently large and 
distinct to permit its being read at a distance of si.x or more feet. 

A poster should have one or two prominent head lines. One is better 
than two ; and over half of the balance should be set in type from one- 
fourth to one-half the size of the largest type used in the poster. The 
other lines should never be set in type smaller than Two-Line Great 
IVimer, e.xcept the few lines giving unimportant, yet necessary information ; 
and these last mentioned lines should be in type no smaller than Great 
, Primer. 

Large wood-cuts add much to the attractiveness of the poster. 



The placing of sign-board advertising, as, — "Five Miles to Brown's 
Shoe Store," is an old, yet good, way of out-of-door advertising. 

The signs should not be nearer than half a mile to each other, and 
the distance specified upon them must be geographically correct. 

Signs nailed to the fences, or other conspicuous places, are unobjection- 
able, and are liable to be beneficial. 

The lettering upon advertising signs should be in the extreme of 
brevity, like, — "Brown's Walking Shoes." " Brown's Rubbers Are Made 
To Wear," "Brown's 50 Cent Shoes." " Stoves at Brown's." "Brown, 
The Leading Dry Goods Dealer." " Brown, The Hatter." " Brown, The 

Advertising signs along the railroad are conspicuous, and, if rightly 
constructed and located, are of considerable value. They should be very 
large, and never placed nearer the track than fifty feet, unless they are 
put up in close proximity to a depot. The letters must be of immense 
size, and the design or illustration, if any, should be sufficiently clear to 
be readily absorbed by the passenger of the flying train. The signs can 
be painted upon fences along the track, if the fences are fifty feet from 
the track, or they can be painted upon barns and sheds, or upon large 
board frames erected in fields along the railroad. 

Roadside advertising has the distinction of being permanent, and good 
petition generally costs nothing. 

Upon or near a bridge is one of the best places to nail advertising signs. 

Place the advertising sign or poster, if of local character, whenever 
possible, on the right hand side of the road, going towards town, so that it 
can be easily seen by the occupants of the carriages as they move town- 

Advertising signs arc somewhat expensive, unless purchased in con- 
siderable quantities. 

A fairly durable advertising sign can be made of pine boards, cut into 
convenient size, the advertising to be printed upon them in large plain 
letters, but not with the stencil. 


If these wooden signs are ordered in quantities as large as one hun- 
dred at a time, a good way to do, is to procure that number of pieces of 
thin, soft wood, and have them printed by some printer who has a strong 
printing press, and dares to risk upon it an electrotype heavy enough to 
do the work. If the local printer will not do it, they can be sent to any 
large city and done at a very low price. 

Ornamental designs or appropriate illustrations are effective additions 
to out-of-door sign work, provided they are designed and painted so as to 
be readily seen at a distance, and clearly portray the idea intended. 

While the plain-gold-on-black sign is generally preferable for the reg- 
ular permanent store sign, it is often advantageous to originate a specific 
style of store sign which will be recognized as peculiar to the firm. 

The copper tea-kettle, the stuffed bear, the wheel, the trunk, the clock, 
and other staple articles of trade, placed by the door or over it, are unob- 
jectional and not undignified, and aid in familiarizing the people 
with the location. 

The stereopticon furnishes a novel way of advertising, although its 
novelty, on account of its frequent use, is somewhat wearing off. If the 
party have confidence in the company running the stereopticon, and is 
sure that the advertisement will be displayed at a prominent place, 
during the time that the streets are more or less full of people, and 
the price be not exorbitant, it is well to consider this method of local 

Flyers, that is, small circulars printed upon cheap paper, and given 
away at the door of the store of the advertiser, or at other prominent 
places, or left on the counters to be gathered up, are recommended for 
special announcements. 

The flyer should be small, clearly printed, and should not contain more 
than two or three times as much as should be contained in a poster writ- 
ten upon the same subject. 

The sandwich-man method of advertising, that is, a man with big 
show-boards hanging from his shoulders, is not to be indiscriminately 


recommended. The chiropodists have advertised in this way from time 
immemorial, and it is presumed that these signs bring in to them a certain 
amount of patronage. Cheap restaurants also use this method of adver- 
tising, presumably with success. 

A unique improvement on the sandwich-man method is the alphabetical 
procession, consisting oi as many men as there are letters in the article 
advertised, each man carrying a sign upon which is printed one of the 
letters, the men marching in single file, near enough together so that the 
word can be easily spelled out. 

Sign bearing men should be well dressed, usually in some conspicuous 

Delivery wagons can be made a source of beneficial advertising. The 
words, " Fine Teas and Groceries," to do much good, should be 
handsomely painted ; and it is a good plan to supplement the lettering 
with some painted scene appropriate to the business. The words, " Brown 
Brothers. Dry Goods. Delivery Wagon," artistically painted upon a 
well painted and finished wagon, do much to impress people with the 
extent of the business. 

In some lines of trade it is well to drive the most elaborately gotten up 
wagon, of special mechanical design, and elegantly painted. The harness, 
too, can be showy, and even the horse blankets may be used for advertising 

The mechanical construction of the body of the wagon can be made to 
represent the business, like a huge trunk, a big shoe, an ofifiice desk, a 
large soap box, an immense sofa, — all on wheels. Any carriage manu 
facturer can build these forms of wagons, and a little ingenuity will allow 
ample room for carrying purposes. The cost of constructing such a 
vehicle need not greatly exceed that of a first-class wagon of ordinary 

Large clocks upon posts, or hanging from out-of-door brackets, aid in 
locating the store, are a public convenience, and are consequently appre- 
ciated, and may be used by any line of trade. 


Everybody is interested in the temperature and the forecasts of the 
weather, and large thermometers and barometers, placed near the outside 
of the entrance, are sure to attract attention. 

The electric light in front of the store is a mark of enterprise ; and 
where the electric light cannot be obtained, other artificial lights can be 
arranged to brilliantly light the street in front of tlie store. 

While all these methods of out-of-door advertising can be made to be 
of benefit to the advertiser, they do not in any way take the place of 
legitimate advertising in legitimate newspapers, and so far as I know, no 
business has ever been successful which depended entirely upon circulars, 
signs, flyers, and the like, for its advertising. When used, and only when 
so used, as supplementary to newspaper advertising, they are more or less 


"The art upon which lean the art and science of the world." 

The encyclopDedia, the book of information, and even the dictionary, 
have honored the art of all arts with appropriate eulogy. 

The past of printing rests among the opening pages of civilization's 

The annihilation of printing means the annihilation of progress. 

Literature, art, science, profession, business, — all are nursed, fed, 
encouraged, and protected by the invention of Gutenberg. 

The click, click, click, of the type in the stick is the still small voice 
which vibrates from pole to pole, and before which nations tremble. 

The product of the printing press is as much a part of business as the 
cash drawer is a part of the cashier's desk. 

No business house exists, or can exist, without a certain amount of 
commercial printing, and even the professional man has to call upon his 
printer as often as upon his doctor. 

The tendency has been, and is, to overcrowd every kind of printed 

I think that I can safely venture the assertion that fully half of every- 
thing in the way of commercial printing, whether it be a business card, a 
bill-head, a circular, a postal, or a pamphlet, contains twice as many words 
as are necessary to tell the story, or the public cares to read. 



Brevity is the one great essential in commercial printing, and neatness 
is about on a par with it. 

Commercial printing, like advertising, should be original and dis- 
tinctive, as far removed from the conventional style of others as is 
possible without crossing the lines of crankyism. 

One of the best rules to follow in printing is to have all the matter 
possible set in a scries of some particular type, the only difference being 
in the size of the letters. 

It is well to use a particular style of type for the firm's name on all of 
its printed matter, varying the size of the type to fit the space. 

The writer of copy for any kind of commercial printing should 
remember that the result is not to please the writer, but to please the one 
to whom it is sent ; that the one receiving it, if it be a circular or other 
form of printed advertisement, is very likely to give it little attention 
unless there be something about its typographical make-up that particu- 
larly strikes him. 

A poorly written, poorly printed circular is generally worth but little 
more than the cost of the white paper. A well written, well printed, and 
well arranged circular has a mission, and can perform it to the benefit of 
the one who sends it out. 

Bill-heads should contain a mere statement of the business of the party 
sending them out. If more than that is put on, it does absolutely no 
good, and spoils the looks of the bill-head. 

Business cards should also be brief. There are few lines of business, 
all the details of which can be expressed upon a business card, and if a 
good part of them are there expressed, it does no particular good, from 
the fact that it is incomplete any way, and people will read only a limited 
amount of it. 

Circulars should tell the story in the fewest possible words. A circu- 
lar is not a work of literature, or a book, and nobody so considers it. If 
it do not strike the mind within a few seconds from the time the eye 
lights upon it, there is not one chance in a hundred of its being readi 


except by those who read everything which is put into their hands, and 
that class of people is seldom profitable to any commercial house. 

Tell the circular story briefly, immediately, and when through telling 
it, stop. 

On general principles, the shorter the circular the better, and the 
shorter the circular the more brains it takes to write it. 

When there is too much matter to be conveniently placed in circular 
form, print it in a pamphlet, but have enough pages in the pamphlet so 
that it will not be necessary to crowd the matter. A pamphlet is nothing 
more or less than a series of circulars, bound in book form. 

Because the writer of the circular or pamphlet understands the goods 
he is writing about, he must not assume that the public is more than 
generally acquainted with them ; and he should so write the description, 
that it will be intelligible to the average mind. 

A descriptive catalogue or pamphlet is simply a biased text-book 
upon the subject, and should be as brief, as pointed, and as intelligible, 
as is a text-book. 

Attention should also be given to the printing paper used. There are 
many cases where the success of certain circulars has depended alm.ost 
entirely upon the uniqueness and originality of the paper. 

There is absolutely no limit to the typographical make-up, the arrange- 
ment of pages, and the variety of papers, colors, and tints. 

A cover can be made so attractive and unique as to command respect- 
ful attention, which will be carried over into the contents of the book. 

A circular or pamphlet is given away. It is to be presumed that 
half of the people who receive it think that they care nothing about its 
contents ; consequently the whole affair should be so arranged, typo- 
graphically and otherwise, that it will be sufficiently read to have the gist 
of its contents quickly absorbed, perhaps unconsciously, by the person 

Always see a proof, no matter how small the printing job may be. 
Read the proof carefully, not only for typographical errors, but to obtain 


suggestions of improvement, which are more likely to be found in the 
reading of the proof than in the reading of the manuscript. 

It is generally inadvisable to continually change the style of the regular 
commercial printing. A business man may be known by his printing. 

By experiment select some distinctly original style for the standard 
printing, and insist upon its being used. 

If the local printer cannot produce the desired effect, send the copy, 
with instructions, to some expert printer, to be set up, and order electro- 
types made. 

The electrotypes should be sent to the local printer when in need of 

The expense of having the original composition executed by some 
expert printer is comparatively small, for the matter can be satisfactorily 
arranged by mail. 

Electrotypers are located in all cities of fair size. 

The cost of electrotyping is about twenty cents per square inch, for 
the first inch, and about four cents per square inch for each additional inch. 
When made in quantities, the cost per electrotype is from twenty-five to 
fifty per cent, less than when less than half a dozen are ordered. 

Electrotypes, with care, will clearly give from one hundred thousand 
to two hundred and fifty thousand impressions. 

Stereotypes are not likely to show clear impressions after twenty-five 
thousand are printed from them, and the best stereotype impression is 
seldom as clear as that of the electrotype. Although stereotypes cost 
about a quarter less than do electrotypes, it is generally poor economy to 
use them. 

The average local printer, even if he cannot, from lack of material, do 
artistic composition, can usually give satisfactory press work. But the 
sending of the original copy of standard printing, like bill-heads and 
business cards, to some expert printer, for artistic original composition, 
with electrotypes to be made therefrom, is to be recommended, unless 
there be a first-class printing office near by. 

PR/A'TIXG. 79 

The following samples of commercial printing are presented for what 
they may be worth in the suggestion of ideas. . The idea conveyed to one 
line of trade can easily be made to apply more or less to any other. The 
type used in the make-up of the samples can be duplicated in nearly every 
large city printing house, and any fairly equipped country printing office 
can, by substitution, preserve the general identity of most of the samples. 


"A woiiiaii^s bonnet hitilt to jit its place" 

(^96 pleasure of your company, witl? 
friends, is renussted at \\)Q Riftl^ Unnual 
Opening of \\)Q West End Frtiilinery Bm- 

)orium, . . 

102 Brown Avenue, 

Wednesday, May 1, 1889. 

9 to 4 o'clock. 

Form of Invitation. Should be upon double sheet. 



'Tis not the clothes which make the man, but they help." 

\ Inspection is invited to the .New Li-ines of 

cOLiitinqs, : : : 
\ roLiserinqs, and 

sO^ o 

O S^:^ ° 


^ercocitinqs. : 

I he- latest inv^oices iqcluJe tl]e finest of Ameri 
can aqJ horeigq fabrics. The prices qv< 
consistei]t With quality of n-|atenal ai]J work 



. . Tailors. . . 
10 BroWn Street .... BrovVnVi! 

Form of Invitation. Should be printed upon double sheet. 



'• Perhaps you '// need me during 'S9." 

1 Ve had ten years of practical professional 
e>?perience \x\ lOentistry. fm conveniently lo- 
cated in Bi^ovv-n's lolocl<;, BroWn e)treet. .IV|\- 
office l]ours are from 9 to 4 o clock. JVjy fees 
are as low" as consistent with skilful workman- 
ship. . . 

WILLIAM Williams, D. D. S. 

May 1, 1889 

Form of Invitation. Should be upon double sheet. 


i(| Colvimbia GlotKir^g House, 


Drowntown, U.,.. 1889. 

Letter or Nute Head. 

l^cadcrs xx) plustj. 



From a Quarter to a Dollar, and JHigKer. 

Heading for Circular or well-printed Flyer. 




COAU, WOOD, ^ C£)yiE;^T, 



Business Card. 

Brownville, a, 1889. 


To F. W. WJHITZ, M.D., 1), 

For Professional Services; 

Professional Bill-Head. 



William Williams, M. D. 



Professional Card. 

Brown & Brown, 

*****-»*-»-» 5ii s* *?&•** -» * «- •» * * * *- * * * * * * -a * * * * * * * * * * «- •» * * 5& «•*****-»*» * 



******-» 5& «• -»**•»**•»-»**»»* * •:;:■ •:•;■ * *• •:•:• * •**»**» S- :i:- :;:■ ;•:- *■ .i:- ;|; :i;- 

260 White Avenue, 

White viLLE, Ohio. 

Business Card. 


About Tables 





Heading for Circular or Pamphlet. 

$.,,t. C1.US l^eccptiop5. ^ 


AND THEIR PARENTS, - - - "'^^ 


Card Invitation. 



Miss E. W. White, 

Fashionable Millinery. 


Special Busmess Card. 





Envelope, Letter, or Note Corner Piece. 



)^|itTE 8t W^tlTE, 



BroM\tr)iowr), 0., 1889. 

Letter or Note Head. 


1002 Whitehall Street, Room 10, 

Special Business Card. 



. BROWNTOWN, 0., 1SS9. 


To Brown Brothers, Dr. 

TKAS, COKKEBS, ^^ K^XIIT.A' Qroceriks, 


Bill-Head or Statement. 


■ Brownville, 0., 1889. 


Bought of Blacky Wt^ite 8f Browr)^ 




" The ever constant click of the type in the stick." 

The multiplicity of type falls not far short of the volume of design 
The unabridged dictionary of type is as massive as the dictionary of 

In size, metal type, commonly in use in newspaper and printing 
offices, is divided into Pearl, Agate {14 lines to the inch), Nonpareil (12 
lines to the inch), Minion, Brevier, Bourgeois, Long Primer (twice as large 
as Pearl), Small Pica {7 lines to the inch), Pica (6 lines to the inch), 
English (twice as large as Minion), Great Primer (twice as large as Bour- 
geois), Paragon (twice as large as Long Primer), Double Small Pica, 
Double Pica, Double English, Double Great Primer, Double Paragon, 
Canon (4 times as large as Pica), Five line Pica. 

This paragraph is set in Pearl Roman. This size of type is generally used only in closely printed books anil for foot-notes. It is 
Beldoin seen in job printing. 

This paragraph is set in Agate Roman. This size of type is commonly used to set up the want advertisements 
in large daily papers, and advertising spice in such papers is reckoned on a basis of Agate measurement, that is the 
number of lines of solid Agate which can be put into any given single column space irrespective of the size of displayed 
t ype contained in the advertisement. 14 Agate lines, set solid, make an inch; this paragraph is leaded. Agate type 
is also used for foot-notes, (luotations, and some closely printed books are set in it. It is seldom used in job work. 

This piiraf^raph is set in Nonpiireil Roniitn. This size of Ronum Type is used to set up the lulvertiseinents 
ill the large weekly papers and the iiiediuin size dailies, and in such papei's the advertising space is reckoned 
on the basis of Xoiipareil measurement. Tlie reading matter in all of the large dailies is set in Nonpareil. 
This type is also used in closely printed books, for foot-notes and quotations, and sometimes in job printing. 

This paragraph is set in Minion Roman. The reading matter in high cla.s.s weeklies, and often 
in tliii small dailies, is set in Minion. Some weekly papei-s measure their advertising space on the 

TYPE. 9 1 

basis of Minion. Tliis size of type is nsed in some books, also for foot-notps aiul i|not<itions, and is 
sometimes seen in job work. 

This paragraph is set in Brevier Roman. The readiug matter of the average weekly 
paper is generally set in Brevier. It is good book type, can be used for quotations, and 
is appropriate for the reading matter portion of long circulars or catalogues. 

This i)aragTapli is set in Bourgeois Homan. This type is used in some of the weekly 
papers for the reading matter, also in magazines and in many class piiblieations. It makes 
a good type for books, ciieulars, and catalogues. 

This pai'agra])h is set in Long Primer Roman. This type is sometimes used for 
the reading matter in weekly papers, and frequently in magazines and class pul)liea- 
tions. Books are often set in it, it is a good type for catalogues and circulai- work, 
and can be used for the reading matter portion of flyers. This size of letter is the 
smallest which should appear in the personal letter style of advertisement. 

This paragraph is set in Small Pica Roman. This size of t;yq)e is much 
used in high grade books, for college and society papers, and for circulai-s 
and high grade catalogues. The Modern style is appropriate for flyers. 
The personal letter advertisement looks well in tliis letter. 

This paragraph is set in Pica Roman. This size of letter is 
used in places Avliere it is desirable to have a type slightly larger than 
Small Pica. It is a splendid tyj^e in which to set the personal letter 
style of advertisement. 

This paragraph is set in English Roman. This type is 
appropriate for flyers and hand bills, and is just the size 
of type to use for the personal letter style of advertisement 
when set in double column. 

This paragraph is sot in Great Primer 
Roman. This size of type is the smallest which 
shonld appear npoii a poster, can he nsed for 
the personal letter sort of adA ertisement Avhen 


set in doubk* cohiiiiii, is good typo for fiyers 
and liand bills, and the caps and small caps 
make good headings, whieli are nmeli nsed in 
tasty job work. 

This i3aragraph is set in Para<^*oii 
Roiuaii. This type, like the type folio av- 
iiig% is used where it is desirable to have 
a plain Roman letter for heading's in 
books or circulars, for readings matter in 
(drculars and posters, for personal letter 
style of adTertising% and for neat job w ork. 

Double Snuill Pica Roiimii. 
Double Pica Roman. 

Double Eno-lisli Roman. 

Double Great Primer. 

Canon Roman. 

TYPE. 93 

Five-Line Pica 

This paragraph is set in Long Primer Old Style Roman, to distinguish the 
Old Style, in which the body of this book is set, from the Modern Style, in 
which the foregoing paragraphs are set. Old Style Roman is the same size as 
Modern Roman, the difference being that the Modern Style is generally of 
heavier face and sets a little closer together. The Modern Roman is used 
generally for reading matter in newspapers, and about half the books are set in 
it. The Old Style is considered by many much handsomer, and is better fitted 
for fine work. 

ZW pajtragjcapl) i^ ^tt in mxx (engli^l) l^ica. Z\\i^ ?tplc 
i^ t\yt olti j^tautiajcti ojcuamcntal icttcr, \^ uscti for 
IjcaDtngi^ anH otl)cr \mt^ in job toorft, anti ?1)oulti ^clUom appear 
in nctD^papcr atibcrtiiafcmcnts. 

This paragraph is set in Full Face Long Primer. Full 
Face is simply Roman of heavier face. In different sizes, 
generally in Nonpareil and Minion, it is used for headings 
of short local items in newspapers, and considerably in job 
Avork. This type is also used to emphasize a Avord in read- 
ing matter Avhere Italics are not strong enough. 

A book twice the size of this could not give one-half the styles 
of ornamental type now in use, even if only a line of each was shown, 
consequently no attempt is made in this direction. 


" The next thing to the real is a picture of it." 

If any one has any doubt about the value of illustrated advertising, he 
has only to turn to the advertising pages of the leading magazines, and 
run his eye over the announcements of the largest and shrewdest of 
national and international advertisers. 

Probably nine out of ten of the announcements of these leading adver- 
tisers are arranged with one or more illustrations. 

Columns of printed description will not give as good an idea of the 
appearance of most articles of trade as will a well made cut of them. 

An illustrated advertisement is conspicuous, and beyond that it is 
kindergarten, for it appeals instantaneously to the eye, as well as to the 
sense of every one who sees it. 

There are articles which cannot easily be comprehensively illustrated, 
and it is better to use no illustration at all, than to use an illustration 
which does not give an intelligent idea of the article pictured. 

A picture of a silk dress may bring into view the intricacies of the 
style, fit, and trimming, but it utterly fails in reflecting the quality of the 

A well executed engraving will illustrate the form, style, and beauty of 
a stove, the outline of a bicycle, the general outside mechanism of 
machinery, and a thousand other articles of trade, much better than can 
printed pages of description. 



The best general rule to follow is to use engravings in advertising 
and printing whenever by so doing no injury will be done to the typo- 
graphical appearance, and the illustration will do justice to the subject. 

A trade-mark sort of an engraving is an excellent thing to use. It 
should be original, small, neat, artistic enough to be handsome, and yet 
not sufficiently so to detract from its business worth, and it should be 
appropriate to the business. An engraving like this can be used on 
ninety per cent, of all business printing, and occasionally in the advertising. 

Engraving, so far as it applies to commercial, society, and art print- 
ing, is divided into four classes, viz : wood-engraving, photo-engraving, 
engraving upon steel and copper, and lithography. 

Wood-engraving is the original method of reproducing drawings and 
pictures, to be printed, with or without accompanying type, on the ordi- 
nary printing press, with printer's ink. 

To obtain a wood-engraving, or a wood-cut, as the printers generally 
call it, it is first necessary to have a drawing or photograph, the latter is 
preferable, of the subject to be engraved. If the drawing is for photo- 
engraving, it should be upon white paper in jet black, or India ink. 
Drawings or photographs, if for wood-engraving, are generally trans- 
ferred by photography upon box- wood, or the design can be drawn directly 
upon the box-wood. In photo-engraving the drawing is directly photo- 
graphed upon zinc or gelatine. 

The accommodating camera will utilize any drawing of reasonable 
dimensions, enlarging it or reducing it to the required size to be engraved ; 
but remember that the drawing or photograph cannot be enlarged or 
reduced other than proportionately. If other change in size is desired, 
the subject must be redrawn or rephotographed. 

The drawing or photograph should be absolutely correct in essentials 
before any engraving is begun. Slight alterations can be made after the 
engraving is finished, but they are expensive. 

Wood-engraving is expensive, for the greater part of it must be done 
by hand. 


No specific scale of prices can be given on the expense of wood-engrav- 
ing. There are few things more deceiving to the novice than the estimating 
of the cost of this class of work. Two drawings may closely resemble each 
other, yet the cost of engraving the one may be twice that of the other. 

The designing, drawing, and* engraving of an outline wood-cut, of 
about four square inches, cost, say from five to ten dollars. A fairly 
respectable looking one of the outside of a store, in size of about 
four square inches, costs from ten dollars to twenty-five dollars. The work 
of making an engraving on wood of about the same size, of a stove, costs 
from eight dollars to fifteen dollars. Twice as large an engraving would 
cost about seventy-five per cent. more. 

The combination of letters and artistic scroll, or other fancy work, or 
views, if executed by an artist, make exceedingly effective and handsome 
engravings for letter-heads, bill-heads, cards, and other commercial printing. 

It is far better to use no engravings whatever than to use poorly made 
ones, or engravings where the quality of the printing is not good enough 
to do justice to the engraving. 

The finer the engraving, the better it must be printed, and the more it 
will cost to print it. 

Type will show fairly well with the poorest of ink, press-work, and 
paper ; but there are few finely executed artistic engravings which can, 
with impunity, stand the test of the newspaper press, as found in most of 
the newspaper offices. 

The open outline style of engraving is the better for newspaper print- 
ing. If well made, it will show as distinctly as does type, and it does not 
cost over two-thirds as much as do the closely cut engravings. 

The effect of an engraving depends upon the way it is printed. 

Always tell the engraver for what purpose the engraving is to be used, 
and he will make it to fit its work. 

Finely executed engravings, like those in the leading magazines, cost, 
irrespective of the original drawing, for engraving alone, as high as from 
one hundred to two hundred dollars. 


Printing should never be done from the original cut or plate. Elec- 
trotypes should be made from it. 

The original cut or plate should be carefully packed away, to be used 
only by the electro ty per. Original cuts, plates, and electrotypes must 
never be sent by mail or express, unless the face and upper edges be 
covered with several thicknesses of paper, or one or two thicknesses of 
blotting-paper, or cardboard. 

All engravings intended for single column should not be wider than 2]/^ 
inches, which size will fit nearly every newspaper column. Most weekly 
newspaper columns are 2^ inches wide, but the 2yk rule is the safest. 
Double column cuts can be one-eighth of an inch wider than twice the 
width of a single column cut. 

Photo-engraving is a comparatively new process, and has risen to pro- 
portions demanding recognition. This method is calculated to supersede 
a large percentage of wood-engraving. 

Some printers and engravers have the conventional prejudice against 
photo-engraving, and this prejudice, at the start, was not wholly without 

A poorly executed photo-engraving is a failure, and so is a poorly 
made wood-cut. 

Within the past few years the quality of photo-engraving has so much 
improved, that every fair minded printer and engraver must admit that a 
well made process-cut is a sharp rival of the wood-cut. 

Outline and open cuts print particularly well by either process, and 
they are to be especially recommended for all newspaper illustration. 

If a large number of duplicates are to be made from an engraving it is 
sometimes better to use the wood-cut for the original ; but if only a com- 
paratively few duplicates are wanted, in the majority of cases a process- 
cut will do fully as well. 

Photo-engravings generally cost from one-half to two-thirds as much as 
do wood-cuts, and in some cases cost much less than one-half. 

Photo-engraving is done by a peculiar process. The drawing is photo- 


graphed, and then transferred upon a zinc or gelatine plate. The material 
between the lines is removed by a certain process, and the plate then 
forms a matrix, from which electrotypes can be taken. 

The most improved method of photo-engraving is that done upon zinc 
plates. The illustrations, made in a few hours, for the large daily papers, 
are all made by this improved method, and, notwithstanding the shortness 
of time, are often remarkable for their clear and sharp lines. 

Steel-engraving and copper-engraving are analogous. Engraving on 
steel is more expensive than upon copper, and as many as fifty thousand 
impressions can be taken from the same steel plate, while five thou- 
sand is the maximum limit of clear impressions possible from any copper 
plate, although the copper plate can be re-cut so as to admit of printing as 
many more. 

The result obtained from steel and copper plates is similar, the work of 
the steel plate being slightly finer and sharper. 

For visiting and business cards, bill-heads, and other permanent 
engraved work, where only a moderate number will be required, and 
for all transient work, the copper plate, considering the cost, is to be 

Copper plates cost to engrave, for script type, about a dollar a line for 
long lines, and fifty cents for short lines ; and fancy lines cost from two 
or three dollars to as high as twenty-five dollars. 

Invitations should generally be engraved, and there is nothing equal to 
the steel or copper-engraving for all kinds of commercial printing, except 
circular and catalogue work, if one choose to go to the necessary expense. 

The cost of press work for engraving runs from one cent apiece, down 
as low as half a cent, not including the stock. 

Lithography is of two kinds, black and chromatic. The former includes 
work similar to engraved work ; the latter all kinds of colored printing, 
from the cheap colored advertising card to the finest oil chromo. 

Letter-heads and bill-heads, business cards, and the like, can be done 
by lithography so as to be very tasty and effective. In script work, well 


done lithography is almost equal to that of the steel and copper plate, 
but fancy lines in lithography, unless printed upon the finest paper, with 
the utmost care, do not begin to compare with steel and copper-engraving. 

In colored work there is nothing equal to lithography, and on large 
runs, colored cards, or other colored matter, can be printed almost as 
cheaply as one or two colors can be, with ordinary type, on the ordinary 
printing press. 

By long runs I mean from twenty-five thousand to a million. 

Unless one can afford to go to considerable expense, he cannot have 
lithographic work especially made for him, for the lithographer's profit 
depends largely upon the number printed, which must be very large to be 
low in price. If the quantity be large, not less than from ten to twenty- 
five thousand, original designs especially gotten up for the advertiser are 
earnestly recommended, and will cost little, if any, more than stock designs. 

Most lithographers carry in stock a large number of very pretty cards, 
which they print in enormous editions, the cards having blank spaces upon 
them, admitting of the local dealer's imprint, which, if well done, will 
appear to be a part of the original color printing, and answer the purpose 
about as well as would a special design gotten up for the advertiser. 
This colored work varies in size from the small card to the large hanger, 
and many beautiful designs, of every size, can be purchased at prices 
ranging from two dollars a thousand for cheap and small cards, to a dollar 
each for handsome chromos, when purchased in quantities not less than 
one hundred, and for a much lower price when larger orders are given. 
Handsome chromos, handsomely yet inexpensively framed, are among the 
best of effective standing advertisements. 


" 'Tis off the usual run of things." 

Everything in the way of advertising out of the province of common 
ink and paper may be classed under the generic term of novel adver- 

Novel methods of advertising, or rather novelties in advertising, appear 
in nameless variety. They are worth considering, and many of them are 
worthy of utilization. 

Advertising novelties are legitimate, in that they can be utilized to the 
advertiser's advantage ; illegitimate and desultory, in that many of them 
are of gratuitous circulation, and consequently some of them may be 
included under the always variable rule that that which costs the receiver 
nothing is worth but little more. 

Desultory publications are classed under this chapter heading simply 
because they fit under it better than under any other. 

Desultory publications are publications of free circulation, or upon 
which a nominal price is placed, the greater part of the edition being given 

There is hardly a town in the country which has escaped an epidemic 
of gratuitous papers, issued generally in the interest of some society. 
The majority of these papers are filled with indifferent reading matter and 
local advertisements. 

NOVEL. 10 1 

There are reasons why the local advertiser should favorably consider 
advertising in the best of these publications : the advertising space is 
liable to be worth somewhere near what is charged for it ; the number 
of copies said to be printed is generally printed ; at least half of the 
publications fall within the hands of the reading public, and are liable 
to be read because they are of temporary local interest ; it is generally 
inadvisable to refuse to advertise in these publications, for they are 
mostly issued by parties of local influence, and the refusal may be noised 
about and cost the dealer in the end more than the cost of the adver- 

I believe that it would be better on the whole for the retail dealer if 
there were no publications of this class ; but they do exist, and as long 
as they do, and continue to receive patronage, the local advertiser can- 
not well afford to ignore them entirely. 

Theatrical and other programmes are patronized by many of the 
retailers, and furnish a fairly good means of reaching the local public. 
Entertainments are attended by all classes of people, in society and out 
of it. There is a chance of the advertisement being read before the enter- 
tainment, and during the intermissions. The rate should not be higher 
than three cents per line per thousand circulation for programmes of 
higher grade entertainments. 

An advertisement on the same page as the programme proper is worth 
twice as much as one on the other pages. 

Time-tables which are sold, and of local circulation, are good advertising 
mediums. Time-tables which are given away are fair, if they are recog- 
nized as accurate, otherwise the advertisements upon them are nearly 

Nearly every town of fair size has its local directory. If there be no 
local directory, the town will be covered by the county directory. Every 
dealer is solicited to give the directory a displayed advertisement, and if 
he will not do it, to have his name printed in full-face type in the body of 
the work. 


Generally a displayed advertisement in a directory is wortli from one- 
quarter to a half what is charged for it, and the advantage of having the 
name in full-face type is largely limited to the personal gratification of the 

I do not believe much in directory advertising, unless the advertise- 
ment be placed upon the outside of the book, or in some very prominent 
position inside. 

Directories, even in the larger cities, have much smaller circulations 
than they are supposed to possess. 

For years the staple form of novel advertising has been a calendar, 
and there are as many varieties of calendars as there are hours in the 

A calendar is useful, and can be so without being expensive. 

No one can keep store or house without a calendar, and almost every 
body can find use for half a dozen of them. 

There is always room for calendar advertising. The most convenient 
and handsomest calendars are sought for, but there are very few people 
who will not accept and preserve even the plainest calendars. 

Serviceable calendars cost anywhere from ten-for-a-cent to fifty cents 

The monthly leaf calendar is by far, considering the price, the best 
calendar on the market. Next to that comes the daily pad calendar, but 
the great expense attending its manufacture bars out any but the larger 
advertising concerns from using it. 

There is no limit to the size of a calendar. 

It is always advisable to get out a calendar a little different from any 
given away by others in town. If there are being circulated calendars to 
hang up which expose the entire year at a glance, do not issue that kind 
of a calendar. Select from the almost innumerable variety something 
which is locally new, as a vest-pocket calendar, a pocket-book calendar, 
a calendar to set upon the desk, a calendar with the moons and tides, a 
calendar with memoranda attached to it, a calendar pretty enough for the 



lady's boudoir, a calendar for the office, for the parlor; in fact, a cal- 
endar can be made at almost any expense, to fit into every nook and 
corner of the home or office. 

Several of the large printing establishments make a specialty of calen- 
dar manufacture or printing, and will furnish a line of samples of many 
styles and corresponding prices. 

Calendars are a specialty, and should be printed or purchased at 
regular calendar publishers. 

Chromos are of any price, generally pretty, seldom unattractive, almost 
always effective. In the form of Christmas cards, they are opportune for 
presentation to ladies and children preceding and during the holidays ; and 
as valentines, they suggest the opening of the spring season. 

Cheap, yet pretty, chromos can be purchased in quantities as low as 
two dollars a thousand, and very handsome Christmas cards come in small 
lots as cheaply as a cent apiece. 

Chromo making is simply colored lithography, and its possibilities are 

Many of the leading lithographers carry an immense stock of ready- 
made chromos, from the little card to the large, beautifully executed, and 
expensive hanger or picture. These can be obtained, in lots of any size, 
at reasonable prices ; and when selected with care, they furnish very 
attractive and effective advertisins:. 

In selecting chromos, bear in mind that while the better the chromo 
the more it will cost, the longer it will be preserved. 

When ordered in quantities exceeding twenty thousand, little additional 
expense will permit the chromo being especially designed ; but unless a 
very large number be desired, the so-called stock chromos will, considering 
the price, do as well. 

The advertisement of the firm should be printed upon the back of 
the chromo unless particular space is left for it on the front; and the 
advertiser should be very careful not to allow the printed matter to 
interfere with the appearance of the picture. 


Indoor signs are almost as important as outdoor ones. Tiiey can be 
made of almost anything which will hold upon it printed, or otherwise 
produced, words. 

There are two kinds of signs, the conspicuous and non-conspicuous. 
The conspicuous are generally plain and staring, with little or no art 
about them. The non-conspicuous are artistic, and attract attention for 
their artistic qualities, and so long as the advertising upon them is plain 
enough to be readily seen the artistic sign is the most attractive. 

Within the last few years marvellous progress has been made in adver- 
tising signs, and many of them cost as high as ten dollars apiece, and are 
genuine works of art. The bas-relief sign, which in quantities costs from 
one dollar upward, is by far the most attractive of indoor advertising 
signs, and when the letters are artistically arranged with scrolls or repro- 
ductions of the articles the sign may be advertising, they are invariably 
displayed in conspicuous places, there to remain, to be studied by every 
one whose gaze may be fixed upon them. 

The embossed paste-board sign is handsome, and if ordered in quantities, 
not very expensive. 

Very durable, handsome, and effective signs are made of tin, copper, 
brass, wood, Plaster-of-Paris, and of almost any material which can be 
moulded or printed upon. 

Indoor signs are put up to stay, and the duration of their life depends 
largely upon their attractiveness. 

Thousands of people will hang up conspicuously an artistic looking 
sign, who would immediately consign to the ash-barrel one which was all 

An attractive sign is expensive, but the expense is largely in the first 

Advertising cards, or signs, in horse cars or passenger coaches, are con- 
sidered of the better forms of advertising. Nearly every member of the 
lower, middle, and upper classes of society is a constant patron of public 
conveyances, and there are few indeed among the poorest peoi:)le who do 

NOVEL. 105 

not occasionally avail themselves of the convenient street car or bus. The 
passengers of the closed conveyances, and often in the open ones, sit 
facing the opposite side of the car, and cannot avoid seeing the advertising 
signs conspicuously posted before them. The ride is monotonous ; if one 
will risk his eyesight, reading is a relief ; but the average passenger does 
not read ; and there are just three other things left for him to do ; twist his 
neck to look out of doors, sit in an entirely oblivious state, or study the 
advertising cards before him. The majority of passengers do all of these, and 
unconsciously absorb the advertising. Put as little as possible upon the 
card, and under no circumstances have upon it lines too small to be 
read the length of the car or bus. 

An advertising sign is in no way desultory ; it is a worthy member of 
the old and honored family of legitimate advertising methods. 

Hundreds of advertising novelties are made of wood, such as rulers, 
checkers, dominoes, pen-racks, pen-holders, pencils, and other things of 
positive use or entertainment. If ordered in quantities they vary in price 
from one to ten cents, and are almost always preserved by the party 
receiving them. 

Printing can be done on wood almost as effectively as upon paper. 

Memorandum books, with the advertising of the firm so placed within 
as not to interfere with the book proper, are always acceptable, and are 
sure to be preserved. 

Celluloid, an imitation of ivory, although costing very much less than the 
ivory itself, is expensive. If one can afford to use novelties made of this 
material he will find that the articles will be preserved, and much thought 
of, by those to whom they are given. Celluloid paper-knives, envelope- 
openers, and the like, are as durable as ivory and fully as handsome. 

The giving away of griddle cakes, hot coffee, and other eatable or 
drinkable articles as a means of attracting trade, will for a few weeks 
materially aid sales; but they lose their advertising grip quickly, and 
never, except in the large cities, should be persisted in more than a 
month at the lon^-est. 


Advertising placed upon advertising clocks, or upon hotel reading 
tables, or around the sides of mirrors, in depots, restaurants, or other 
public places, is worth very little. 

The agricultural fair opens a means of very effective advertising Da 
not pile the goods up in an indifferent heap, and expect visitors to give 
them more than a passing glance. Arrange them artistically. Give away 
inexpensive advertising matter. Do not leave the advertising matter on the 
rail, or anywhere else where the irrepressible boy can get a handful of it. 
Place the best looking, most business-like, and courteous clerk in charge 
of the exhibit, and keep him there. If possible, have a working exhibit. 

Anything which can be made up cheaply, yet does not show cheapness- 
upon its face, and which is useful or ornamental, is a good thing to give 
away to customers, or to influence custom. 

Many a very effective article has been spoiled by covering it over with 
the advertising of the concern giving it away. 

The advertising portion of all novelties should be plain and distinct. 
It may be conspicuous, if it in no way interfere with the appearance of 
the article. If it should, it reduces the value of the present over one-half 
to the one who receives it. 

Nothing looks worse than an advertising novelty plastered with 
advertising. If it be a colored picture, do not print advertising over the 
sky or water. It offends the artistic taste ; it spoils the picture. Place 
the advertising over the picture or under it. Perhaps the scene offers 
a convenient barndoor or fence, which will hold the advertising. The 
picture itself is what attracts people, and if it do, the looker-on will 
discover the advertising, even if it be in small letters in a background 

Novel advertising is effective, and it is to be indulged in, more or less^ 
by every advertiser ; but it does not take the place of newspaper adver- 
tising. It is simply supplementary to it, and when intelligently used in 
connection with newspaper advertising, it is to be generally recommended, 
particularly to those firms which are considered extensive advertisers. 


" Words of others tell the story.' 

Pertinent quotations often add weight and dignity to an advertisement, 
and if used carefully and appropriately add a quiet refinement to the better 
class of circular and other printed matter. An opportune quotation at 
the head of a finely executed invitation to a millinery or other opening, or 
for a high grade special announcement of any profession or trade, 
pleasantly appeals to the artistic sense of the receiver. 

The quotation should invariably be set in small light-faced type, Non- 
pareil or Minion of Old Style Roman to be preferred, and seldom should 
be set larger than in type of Long Primer body. If the name of the 
author follows the quotation, quotation marks should not be used, and 
unless the quotation is one universally recognized, the author's name 
should be appended. 


The juicy pear 
Lies in a soft profusion scattered round. 
— Thomson. 

Adam, well may we labor, still to dress 
This garden, still to tend plant, herb, and 
flower. — Milton. 

The first farmer was the first man, and 
all historic nobility rests on possession 
and use of land. — Emerson. 

Each tree, 
Laden with fairest fruit, that hung to th'eye 
Tempting, stirr'd in me sudden appetite 
To pluck and eat. — Milton. 




Heap high the farmer's wintry iioard ! 

Heap high the golden corn ! 
No richer gift has Autumn poured 

From out her lavish horn ! 

Let other lands, exulting, glean 

The apple from the pine. 
The orange from its glossy green. 

The cluster from the vine ; 

But let the good old corn adorn 

The hills our fathers trod ; 
Still let us, for His golden corn, 

Send up our thanks to God! 

— Whittier. 


He that hath a house to put his head in, 
has a good head piece. — King Lear. 

Houses are built to live in, not to look 
on ; therefore, let use be preferred before 
uniformity, except where both can be had. 
— Bacon. 

1 would have, then, our ordinary dwell- 
ing-houses built to last, and built to be 
lovely ; as rich and full of pleasantness as 
may be within and without, and with such 
differences as might suit and express each 
man's character and occupation, and partly 
his history. — Ruskin. 

The value of architecture depends on 
two distinct characters — the one, the im- 
pression it receives from human power; 
the other, the image it bears of the natural 
creation. — Ruskin. 


I must to the barber's; for, methinks, 

I am marvellous hairy about the face. 

— AfidsKviincr A'ii^hfs Dream, 


And him who, with the steady sledge, 
Smites the shrill anvil all day long. 
— Bryant. 

The painful smith, with force of fervent 
The hardest iron soon doth mollifie. 
That with his heavy sledge he can it beat, 
And fashion to what he it list apply. 

— Spenser. 

Books and Stationery. 

Some ink, paper, and light. — Anon. 

Take away the sword! States can be 
saved without it. Bring the pen ! — Bnlzucr. 

Pens carry further than rifled cannon. — 
Bayard Taylor. 

After all, there is nothing like a book. — 
Ritfns CJtoate.' 

My library was dukedom large enough. 
— Shakespeare. 

I like books. I was born and bred 
among them, and in their company I have 
the easy feeling that a stable-boy has among 
horses. — Holmes. 

Come, my best friends, my books ! and 
lead me on. — Cowley. 

I entrench myself in my books, equally 
against sorrow and the weather. — Leigh 

Old wood to burn, old wine to drink, old 
friends to trust, old books to read.— Alonzo 
of Arrai^on. 

Boots and Slioe.s. 

The shoemaker makes a good shoe 
because he makes nothing else. — Emerson 



How much a man is like his shoes ! 
For instance, both a soul may lose ; 
Both have been tanned ; both are made 

By cobblers ; both get left and riglit. 
Both need a mate to be complete ; 
And both are made to go on feet. 
They both need healing ; oft are sold, 
And both in time will turn to mould. 
With shoes the last is first ; with men 
The first shall be the last ; and when 
The shoes wear out they're mended new ; 
When men wear out they're men dead too ! 
They both are tread upon, and both 
Will tread on others, nothing loth. 
Both have their ties, and both incline. 
When polished, in the world to shine ; 
And both peg out. Now, would you choose 
To be a man or be his shoes? — Anon. 

Let firm, well hammered soles protect thy 

Though freezing snows, and rains, and 

soaking sleet. 
Should the big last extend the sole too 

Each stone will wrench the unwary step 

aside ; 
The sudden turn may stretch the swellino- 

The cracking joint unhinge, or ankle 

sprain ; 
And when too short the modish shoes are 

You'll judge the seasons by your shooting 

corns. _ Gay. 

He cobbled and hammered from morning 
till dark, 
With the foot gear to mend on his 
knees ; 
Stitching patches, or pegging on soles as 
he sang. 
Out of tune, ancient catches and glees. 
— Oscar H. Harpel. 


Why, that's spoken like an honest drover; 
So they sell bullocks. 

— .\ruch Ado Aboict Nothing. 

Cabinet Makers. 

Necessity invented stools. 
Convenience next suggested elbow-chairs, 
And Luxury the accomplish'd sofa last. 

— Coiuper. 

Ingenious Fancy, never better pleased 
Than when employ'd t' accommodate the 

Heard the sweet moan of pity, and devised 
The soft settee, one elbow at each end. 
And in the midst an elbow it received. 
United, yet divided, twain at once. 

— Cou'per. 

Carpentry and Building. 

In the modern days of art, 

Builders build with utmost care 
Each minute and unseen part. 
Quality goes everywhere. 

— Adapted. 

On with the dance! Let joy be uncon- 

fin'd ; 
No sleep till morn, when youth and pleasure 

meet. Sryon. 

Merrily, merrily whirled the wheels of the 

dizzying dances 
Under the orchard-trees and down the 

path to the meadows ; 

Twelve dancers are dancing, and taking no 

And closely their hands together are 

press'd ; 
And soon as a dance has come to a close. 
Another begins, and each merrily goes. 

— Heine, 



Old folk and young together, and children 
mingled among them. — Longfellow. 


I have the toothache. 

What! sigh for the toothache? 

— Much Ado About Notlnng. 

Those cherries fairly do enclose 

Of orient pearl a double row, 
Which, when her lovely laughter shows. 

They look like rosebuds fiU'd with snow. 
— Richard Allison. 

For there was never yet philosopher 
That could endure the toothache patiently. 

— Much Ado About Nothing. 


I do remember an Apothecary, 
And hereabouts he dwells. 

— Romeo and Juliet. 

General Business. 

Despatch is the soul of business. - 
of Chesterfield. 


Business despatched is business well done. 
But business hurried is business ill done. 
— Bulwer-Lytton. 

I'll give thrice so much land to any well- 
deserving friend ; 
But in the way of bargain, mark ye me, 
I'll cavil on the ninth part of a hair. 

— Henry IV. 


A hat not much the worse for wear. 
— Cowper. 

My new straw hat that's trimly lin'd with 

Let Peggy wear. — Gay. 

Have a good hat; the secret of your looks 
Lives with the beaver in Canadian brooks; 
Virtue may flourish in an old cravat; 
But man and nature scorn the shocking 
hat. — Holmes. 

Hotels and Restaurants. 

Will you go with me? We'll mend our 
dinner here.-r- Comedy of Errors. 

Here is the bread, which strengthens 
man's heart, and therefore is called the 
staff of life. — Matthew Henry. 

Shall I not take mine ease in mine inn? 
— Henry IV. 

We left the shade : 
And, ere the stars were visible, had reached 
A village inn, — our evening resting-place. 
— Wordsworth. 

Whoe'er has travell'd life's dull round, 
Where'er his stages may have been, 

May sigh to think he still has found 
The warmest welcome at an inn. 

— Shenstone. 

Nearer as they came, a genial savor 

Of certain stews, and roast meats, and 

Things which in hungry mortal's eyes find 

favour. — Byron. 

Yet smelt roast meat, beheld a huge fire 

And cooks in motion, with their clean arms 

bared. — Byron. 

We may live without poetry, music, and 

art ; 
We may live without conscience, and live 

without heart ; 
We may live without friends ; we may live 

without books : 
But civilized man cannot live without 

cooks. — Owen Meredith. 


I 1 1 


Stones of small worth may lie unseen by 

But night itself does the rich gem betray. 

— Cozvley. 

A pearl may in a toad's head dwell, 
And may be found, too, in an oyster shell. 

— Bunyan. 

The lively diamond drinks thy purest rays, 
Collected, light, compact. — TJionisoii. 

These gems have life in them: their colors 

Say what words fail of. — George Eliot. 

The clock upbraids me with the waste of 
time. — Twelfth AHgJit. 


Many carriages he hath despatched. 
— King Joltn. 

Go call a coach, and let a coach be called, 
And let the man who calleth be the caller; 
And in his calling let him nothing call, 
But coach ! coach ! coach ! O for a coach, 
ye gods ! — Henry Carey. 


Sir, he made a chimney in my father's 
house, and the bricks are alive at this day 
to testify it. — Henry VF. 


Softly her fingers wander o'er 
The yielding planks of the ivory floor. 
Benjamin F. Taylor. 


Turn, turn, my wheel ! Turn round and 

Without a pause, without a sound : 
So spins the flying world away ! 

This clay, well mixed with marl and sand. 
Follows the motion of my hand ; 
For some must follow, and some command, 
Though all are made of clay ! 

— Longfellow. 

Safes and Vaults. 

'Tis plate of rare device : and jewels 

Of rich and e.xquisite form; their values 

great ; 
And I am something curious, being strange. 
To have them in safe storage. 

— Cy?nbeline. 

Tailoring and Clothing. 

The outward forms the inner man reveal. 

— Hobnes. 

Be sure your tailor is a man of sense. — 

Sister ! look ye, 

How, by a new creation of my tailor's, 
I've shook off old mortality. 

— fohn Ford. 

What a fine man 
Hath your tailor made you. 

— Massinger. 

V\\ be at charges for a looking-glass, 
And entertain my friend the tailor 
To study fashions to adorn mv body. 
— Shakespeare. 

Costly thy habit as thy purse can buy. 
But not express'd in fancy; rich, not 
gaudy ! 

For the apparel oft proclaims the man. 

— Hanilet. 

Here thou great Anna ! whom three realms 

Dost sometimes counsel take — and some- 
times tea. — Pope. 


" Good will to all, to business too ; the old year wanes amid a rush of trade.' 

All the world's on foot. Crowds surge in and out of the doors, and 
jostle each other on the street. A jingling stream of money is connecting 
buyer and seller. Good will towards men, good will towards business, 
good will towards everybody and everything. 

In every home in the land, everybody, from ttie eight to the eighty 
year old, is trying to solve the annual riddle, " What shall I buy for 
Christmas .-* " 

Everybody is buying, everybody wants to buy, and everybody is 
encouraging everybody to buy. 

St. Nicholas is the trade-mark of business ; he is stamped on every 
article of trade, in every column of the newspaper, and is reflected upon 
every face. 

At no other season of the year is there such opportunity for advertis- 
ing, in all of its forms of quality, quantity, and originality. 

While the proportionate increase of trade is with the toy shops, the 
fancy goods stores, and those stores which particularly cater to the holi- 
days, there are very few lines of business unreached by the Christmas- 

The unromantic coal, the non-poetic wash-tub, the unintellectual boot, 
are not without some of the holiday glitter. The necessities of life, with the 


HOLIDA V. 113 

conveniences, are sought for, and the limited-pocket book, the most influ- 
enced by advertising, empties itself upon the counters of the stores which 
are assumed to be without the holiday fold. 

Encourage the giving of gifts; it is right and proper; it is business. 
Announce presents suitable for the poor. The international heart and 
pocket-book are open to the unfortunate. Suggest a ton of coal, a barrel 
of flour, a bag of meal, a warm coat, a pair of shoes. Be philanthropic. 
Advertise philanthropy. Announce that necessities to be given to the 
poor are sold at a discount. Make the discount as big as the heart. It will 
pay to do it from business policy alone. Deception on the part of the 
buyer is improbable. Few, very few, when the ground is covered with the 
Christmas snow, will claim the charity discount for gifts to the needy, 
unless the claim be genuine, and one can afford to lose once or twice for 
the benefit of the many, himself included. 

The advertising columns of the newspaper are studied as is the dic- 

Fortunate is the advertiser who makes his advertisement a kindergar- 
ten primer which answers the pertinent question of " what to buy } " 

Head the advertisement, " Christmas Suggestion No. i," and continue 
the enumeration. Under each, place some specific article, which will aid 
the purchaser in his selection. 

Throw to the winds the conventional style of advertising. Give each 
announcement the characteristic glow of welcoming light. 

Have the windows and counters full of goods fresh and invitino- 
Illuminate the sidewalk ; have the store a blaze of light ; and do not 
forget that the dark printer's ink will carry the Christmas tidings into 
every nook and corner of the town, and the towns about. 

Remember the little folks, and in thinking of them, forget not that the 
father and mother are interested ; that the young man has a sweetheart, 
or ought to have ; that the young woman has a lover, or wants one. 
Change the advertisement as often as the paper may be issued. 
Announce gifts for all ages, one age at a time. 


Begin the holiday advertising four weeks before Christmas, and appeal 
to every class of society, age, and size of pocket-book, several times before 
the close of the holidays. 

Give away Christmas cards. Present customers with other novelties. 

If the store sell toys, or other articles which delight the children, 
dust Santa Claus, or build a new one. Have him in the store or on the 
street ; have him in both places. He is as old as the hills, but his 
visits are perennial, and, except in looks, he has the freshness of youth. 

Trade slacks after the holidays, and the advertising should return to 
its normal size. Do not stop it. There are lots of goods sold after the 
holidays, and the progressive advertiser gets the bulk of it. 




" The cheerful window bids a welcome to the passer by." 

The ability to properly dress and decorate windows and stores rises to 
the dignity of art. 

No man without true artistic sense, and who is not a keen discriminator 
of color, with its lights and shades, can make other than a bungling 
dresser or decorator. 

Decorators are born, not made. Crude artistic ability must exist in 
the first place, to depend upon practice, experience, and study for 

In every store where there are a quarter of a dozen clerks, there is 
likely to be one who leads the others in this branch of advertising art. 

Perhaps it will be well to put the employees on competitive mettle, 
leaving the decorating for a given time entirely in charge of each one, and 
create the office of head decorator and dresser for the one who proves to 
be the most proficient in this direction. 

The effective store decorator will combine business with art. The true 
artist is a slave to his talent, and while his methods may not admit of 
criticism if judged upon the platform of broad and undefiled art, they 

1 1 6 ABO UT A D I 'ER TISIA'G. 

may totally lack that conjunction with business, which is absolutely 
necessary in profitable business decoration. 

The man or woman who can successfully decorate a store, or dress a 
window, is particularly valuable to the merchant, whose appreciation should 
be shown by increase of salary. 

The most elaborate decoration seldom interferes with the business 
arrangement of the store. 

The show window was created wholly for appropriate dressing, and if 
it be not properly arranged, it is simply useless, a waste of space which 
cannot be filled or used for any other purpose. 

The history of window dressing probably began with the first store 
which had a window. A show window is looked at. It is just where 
people have got to look into it, and if it be properly dressed, it is one of 
the cheapest and most effective means of advertising the goods in the store. 

All classes of people will look into a show window. Perhaps the 
poorer classes will linger longer before it. The blue-blooded aristocrat 
may not consider it good form to allow her eyes to delight on the show 
window exhibition, but if the window be dressed in a particularly attrac- 
tive manner, and its beauties are so prominent that one will observe them 
at a glance, the blue-blooded and the red-blooded must, at least, catch a 
glance of it, unintentionally or otherwise. 

The art is voluminous, and the contents of a hundred books would 
hardly exhaust the beginning of the subject. This chapter, then, is but a 
brief outline of suggestion. 

The expense of decoration is so slight as to be hardly worthy of 

The decorator's tools consist of a hammer, a saw, some nails, a few 
boards and boxes, and the paraphernalia are the goods in stock, with such 
outside additions as may be considered appropriate. 

Generally it is better to decorate to fit the business. The dressed 
window should not only illustrate the trade of the store, but it should be a 
mirror of the seasons, and an object lesson of the styles. 


Decoration without an abundance of light, loses half its attractiveness. 
An arrangement of light is a legitimate part of decoration. Do not allow 
the light to glare in the face of the looker-on. Have the light overhead or 
somewhere else where it will illuminate the objects on exhibition without 
flashing in the face of the audience. A row of lights arranged at the 
bottom of the window, properly screened from the outside, and placed 
close to the glass, will keep the frost from collecting on the window pane. 

The incandescent electric light is by far the best for illuminating pur- 
poses. Its light is clearer and stronger, and there is absolutely no danger 
of fire from it. 

Do not mix decorative styles. Decide upon a certain style, and let 
that style for the time permeate the decorations in store and window. 

In those stores where a variety of goods are kept, it is well not to 
display in the window more than a few different kinds, all of which should 
be particularly adapted to the season. 

The simplest forms of store decoration are streamers, banners, and 
shields, all of bright colors, and happily blending. 

Often the goods can be piled upon the shelves and counters in a 
harmony of color. 

The goods can be built into the form of pyramids, columns, houses, 
and innumerable other objects. 

A bridge of calico is suggested, the bridge proper built of wood, the 
pieces of calico being so arranged that the frame work is invisible. On 
the same principle a show fire-place can be constructed. 

The ladder is one of the handiest things upon which to hang decora- 
tion. An arrangement of looking-glasses will often add much to the 

A very pretty effect can be arranged with a background of handker- 
chiefs of the various colors, with handkerchiefs in the foreground draped 
upon pillars or arranged in cones. 

Dress goods in shades and color are limitless, and the largest window 
cannot contain samples of the entirety of even one line of fabrics. 


An evolution in stockings is suggested, from the infant's to the longest 
of the long, arranged so that a glance will grasp the extent of the 

Collars and cuffs can be built in the shapes of elephants or other 

Neck-ties can be arranged in a poem of color. 

Under-wear of every variety may be so displayed that the field of its 
production instantaneously suggests a purchase. 

A scale of shoes, from the babies' to the number twelves, will impress 
upon the people the extent of the stock. 

A fountain playing in the centre of the window, with gold-fish swim- 
ming in the bowl below, is sure to attract a crowd ; and one looking at the 
fountain must notice the goods about it, the more so if their shape, 
color, and arrangement do not make the fountain seem forced into 
unnatural prominence. 

The idea of placing waterproof shoes in a tank of water is old, and yet 
emphatically impresses the beholder with the water-resisting qualities of 
the shoes. The attractiveness of the tank can be much enhanced by the 
addition of floating water-lilies and aquatic plants. 

Automatic window figures are always novel, and sure to attract atten- 
tion. During a lively purchasing season the toy shops can well afford to 
keep a lad employed in the window winding up and exhibiting automatic 

As a suggestion, build a lovers' walk in the window ; construct the 
miniature shrubbery of ferns and flowers ; dress a handsome doll in hand- 
some clothes ; from behind the scenes start her along the walk, and when 
she has walked about half way, start a walking dude after her. He 
should walk faster than the girl, and meet her just as the two disappear 
from sight. They should disappear in concealing shrubbery, at the further 
end of the window, where they can be taken out and started again with- 
out the gaze of the outsider. 

Build a miniature armory of umbrellas. 


Draped figures exhibit the quality, style, and fit of clothing. The 
figure faces should be as natural as possible. Some local artist can paint 
out the usual ghastly appearance of the faces. Do not allow the show 
dummies to stand like dummies among a havoc of clothing. Seat some 
of them ; arrange a street or other scene for a background ; introduce 
trees and foliage, or place them in apparent comfort in representation of a 
parlor or sitting-room group. 

A pipe organ made of poles, covered with appropriately colored dress 
goods, is attractive. 

Place a large crayon portrait of some prominent man or woman in 
the window, and build a gigantic frame around it of the different shades of 
velvet. ' 

Do not exhibit the portrait of any one connected with the store ; it 
will not attract any particular attention, and may cause many uncompli- 
mentary remarks. 

Grocers will find very attractive large signs made of grain. The 
easiest way to construct one of these signs is to cover a large board with 
some neutral tint of paper, paint the lettering upon it with thick, slow- 
drying varnish, and, while it is wet, scatter the grain over the board, leaving 
it undisturbed until the varnish is thoroughly dried, when the surplus grain 
can be easily shaken off. 

Letters can also be made in large shallow boxes of grain by filling the 
box or trough with one kind of grain and making the letters out of 
another which must be of different color. 

If the show window be large enough, exhibit a miniature parlor or 
dining room, or chamber, or library, which will particularly exhibit the 
goods desired to be sold. 

A fully equipped kitchen can be arranged in the window. A colored 
glass lantern in the cooking-stove closely represents fire, and a heating 
lamp under the tea-kettle will produce a cheerful stream of steam. 

Live figures will hold a crowd better than anything else, particularly if 
they be engaged in some interesting mechanical work. 


It costs no more to put the expert shoemaker or repairer in the 
window. His work at the bench at the back of the store would hardly 
win a glance, but in the window his work gains 'and holds the attention 
of every one who wears shoes. 

The potter's wheel, in the hands of an experienced potter plying his 
trade in the window, interests the ladies, and the ladies are the ones who 
buy crockery. 

The old-fashioned spinning-wheel, with an old-fashioned girl manipu- 
lating it, is an object lesson in contrast with the lightning looms of to-day. 

No matter what the trade may be, if it be so that the goods can be 
manufactured on a miniature scale in the window, it is generally well to 
temporarily so manufacture them. 

Do not allow the same show window display to remain more than two 
or three weeks. It is better to change it much oftener than that. 

If prices are to be marked on the goods displayed in the window or 
store, do not have the placards objectionably large. 

So far as possible confine the window dressing to one specific line of 
goods at a time, and if advisable to continue the display of that line for 
an indefinite period, make at least weekly change of arrangement. 

There is nothing in the way of trade which will fail to aid in artistic 
business decoration, and it cannot well be arranged so that people will 
refuse to look upon it. 

If the window display be particularly elaborate, interesting, or original, 
see to it that the local paper prints a description of it. 

Of all the seasons, that of the holiday is the time for extra decoration. 
Select the principal holiday goods for the exhibition, and bend every 
energy to make the display tasty, artistic, fresh, and original ; and if 
necessary hire outside help to assist in the arrangement. 

People buy goods after the holidays, and the decorative fire of the 
year should not be all consumed during the Christmas time. 


" Some things to look at, keep, and utilize." 

The contents of the following pages are presented for what they may- 
be worth to the advertiser in the making up of advertisements. The sub- 
ject is as inexhaustible as the combinations of the alphabet, and to attempt 
to cover even a small portion of its entirety is impossible, particularly so 
within the pages of a book which aims at brevity. 

The sample advertisements are all genuine advertisements, prepared 
expressly for the respective firms, and, with very few exceptions, were 
written or arranged by the author of this book. The original idea was 
to display dummy samples, but it was afterwards considered advisable to 
present as samples, advertisements which had passed the muster of prac- 
tical business criticism, written for use, and each approved by a different 
experienced advertiser. 

These sample advertisements are for suggestion, to be studied by the 
advertiser. The idea conveyed in one advertisement may be advan- 
tageously used in another written on something entirely foreign to the 
first. Originality is intended, and typographical appearance considered 
of importance. The reader may find in each idea opportunity for improve- 
ment, enlargement, and increased uniqueness. 

The advertisements are nearly all set in type to be found in almost all 
first-class newspaper offices, and very few are too elaborately gotten up 



typographically to render them difficult of near reproduction with the 
material at the disposal of any fairly fitted up office. 

It is obvious that with the free use of ornamental job type many of 
the samples could be much more artistically set up ; but it would be use- 
less to present arrangements impossible of reproduction in the average 
newspaper office. 

Consideration must be given to the limited space of the pages of the 
book. Many of the advertisements would appear to much greater advan- 
tage if set in space two or more times as large as is possible in convenient 
book form. 

Once more, remember that the advertisement is for the reader's eye 
not for the writer's, and that the firm name is not to be a conspicuous 
part of the advertisement except where the house has marked identity, 
unusual importance, and a pronounced distinctive character, which do 
not exist in probably over fifty retail stores in the country. 

It is well to select a plain, small, and particular style of type for the 
name and address, to be used in the majority of the advertisements. At 
light expense the name and address can be engraved on wood or done by 
the photographic process, and electrotypes made therefrom which will be 
almost equivalent to an effective trade-mark. The engraved lines, if 
small, can properly and occasionally be used at the head of the advertise- 
ment, providing the advertisement occupies considerable space and is 
composed of large type with much open space between the lines. 

Whenever convenient, and a Jittle promptness will easily make it so, 
see a proof of the advertisement. Any newspaper is ready to furnish a 
proof, and generally glad to do so, for it relieves it of some of the respon- 
sibility. Unless one is familiar with writing for the press, printed words 
look amazingly different from those of the written copy, and by the proof 
necessary changes and valuable improvements may be suggested. 

The type measure of the pages is that of the ordinary double news- 
paper column. 



"Thi^e Hundred Folks Dye Every Day." 


French Dyeing and Cleansing Estal)lishment, 




Advertisement prepared expressly for Lewando's French Dyeing and Cleansing Establish- 
ment, illustrating form of illustrated advertisement with paradoxical heading. Must not be set in less 
space than above. More space better it looks. Wood-cut of above, including drawing, costs about J20; 
photo-engraving, not including drawing, about ^4. The lighter-faced the type around it the more striking 
will be the illustration. 




For Investment, 

Por Unforeseen Ca- 

Por Death, 

Por the Widow, 

Por the Pamily, 


"There can be no investment more 
solid, more mutual, more necessary, than 
Life Insurance." 

" III little sums lie 
paid it; 

In bulk 'twill all 
coiue back to him." 








Bank of England, Surplus & Capital, .^Sf,, 704,781 

Mutual Life Ins. Co., Assets - - 118,80(5,851 

Uank of England, Liabilities - 257,807,471 
Mutual Life Ins. Co., Insurance in 

Force 427,028,932 

Mutual Life Ins. Co., Liabilities - 112,512,410 

Mutual Life Ins. Co., Surplus - - 6,294,441 


OF X. Y., 



Josephus. — Come, marry me. 

Cleopatra.— V or what? 

Josej/hus. — For love. 

Cleopatra.— Any tangible induce- 
ments ? 

Josephus.— B.<>\a gi.'j.OOO iiolicy in 
Mutual Life Ins. Co., of N. Y. 

C/eopa^ra.— Embrace me. 

An Insurance Security 
Unmatched in Chris- 

From the. Widotf of Ihe Inte Col. J'ulsifer, Pub- 
lisher of ihe Jioston Herald : 

BOSTON', M.\SS., Nov. 19, 1888. 
C. A. Hopkins, Esq., 

Dear Sir— Allow me to thank you and the company you rep- 
resent for your prompt and fjeiierous action, in the payment of 
the jiolicy on my late Imsband's life. 

He was a firm believer in Life Insurance, and his family to- 
day, by reason of your more than .satisfactory fulfilment of 
yourobliiiation, have rc.a.sou to be griiteful for your faithful- 
ness and for his sagacity. 

Yours truly, 



C. A. HOPKINS, General Agent, Company's Building, 95 Milk St., Boston. 

Advertisement written especially for the Mutual Life Insurance Co., of New York, illustrating combina- 
tion of type and brass rule work which can be reproduced in any good newspaper office. Must occupy double 
column ; will look better in 1 2-inch length of triple column. 



V 'X 







V <» 

^- MASS. 

^ 't f 

The above, used by permission of Massachusetts Title Insurance Co., is catchy, startling, im- 
pressive, and emphatically emblematic of the result of not doing as it suggests. A wood-cut of it costs, 
including drawmg, about Sio; a photo-engraving, not including drawing, about ?3.5o. The drawing costs 
about 32 ; the cost of design depends upon the reputation of the artist. Electrotypes cost about 60 cts. each. 



ibe ilargcst ^lusiral Institution 





40,000 PUPILS, 




The Combined Advantages of th»' fo11o\e- 
iiig thoroughly equipped Schools, viz.: 

I. The Piano. 
II. The Orjran. 

III. The T'orniation and Cultivation of 

the Voice, Lyric Art, Opera. 

IV. The Violin, Orchestra, Ouartet. and 

Ensemble Playing, Orchestral and 
Band Instruments, Art of Con- 
V. Harmony, Composition, Theorj-, 
VI. Church INIusic, Oratorio, Chorus 

VII. Sight-Sin4;ing, Vocal Music in Pub- 
lic Schools. 
VIII. Tuning, Regulating, and Repairing 
Pianos and Organs. 
IX. General Literature, Modern Lan- 
X. Elocution, Dramatic Action. 
XI. Fine Arts. 
XII. Physical Culture. 

XIII. Home for Lady Pupils. 

XIV. College of Miisic. 

Instruction is given by ablest American and European 
artists and teachers, class and private lessons. 

Students in any one school h.^ve the free advantages 
of all the schools, such as concerts, recitals, sighi- 
singing, and chorus practice, lectures, readings, etc., 
also use of large musical library. 

The Home is supervised by the Director, Preceptress, 
Resident Physician, and Lady Teacli^rf. The entire 
building is heated by steam and lighted by elrc'ricity. 
Opportunities here offi-red not surpassed by any similar 
institution in tiie world. 

TUITION : $5, $io. $is, $20, a id $25 per term. 
Board and Rooms, $5 to $7.50 per week. 

^civ England ffiott^crvatotjj of p«$ic, 

Franklin Square, Boston. E. TOURJEE, Director. 


Written and arranged expressly for N. E. Conservatory of Music. Illustrates comprehensive 
advertisement, .set in halves, one to catch the eye of the casual reader, the other to tell more of the story if he 
be interested in the lubject. Should not be set in less space than above. Looks well all in one column. 

SAMPLES. 1 27 


TRAIN, sm:ith: & CO. 





If you are a consumer of paper it will 
be for your interest to address them at 

24 Federal St., Boston, Mass. 

Advertisement written for Messrs. Train, Smith & Co., Boston, illustrating plain artistic form of 
standing advertisement for trade papers. Looks well in single column ; better in double. Can occupy 
from 6 inches single to any size of single or double column 


ltno\t^ all people b^ tl)e^e prejsentis, that :^^. ^"^^^''^'^'^ 

Brothers <&^ Covipany, a Jirfu established in 1S70 ''' f^t^ City of Boston, County of 
' Suffolk, Commonwealth of Massachusetts ; and of the City of Philadelphia, County of 
Philadelphia, State of Pennsylvania ; and of the City of Chicago, County of Cook, State 
of Illinois, jjj consideration of ^'^'^ lowest reasonable wholesale and retail prices, 

paid hy ..^"y^.^"^' the receipt whereof is hereby acknowledged, 

do hereby grant, sell, transfer, and deliver nnto the said (tfiyoody, 
the following goods and chattels, namely : 

Window Shades, Curtain Fixtures, Opaque and Tint Cloths, Hollands and 
Upholstery Goods, and the like. 

Co IjabC anti to t)OHj all and singular the said goods and chattels to 

the sa.K\.^"y^o^y' and ./'"'-'' ^': J''^'' executors, administrators, 

and assigns, to their own use and behoof forever. 

And .^.-^ hereby CObenatlt with the grantee that '^"^..^'['^ 

the lawful owners of the said goods and chattels, that thej- are free from incum- 
brances except those always honestly stated, if they exist, by our conscientious 

. .^^ ' that ''^^^. have good right to sell the same 

as aforesaid; and that..... '^'^ will tUanraitt ailtl tlCfClltl the same against the 

lawful claims and demands of all •^^soxis.,...^'''i.^Sai'istimpeifcction and damage. 

3Fn iuitnc^^ U3Jjereor,...'^^?...the said J^''^^^'"^": .^^^^^^^^^ 

hereunto set ^'.^.' hand and seal this ■^''^^. day of 

J^.'"^^^'y\ in the j^ear one thousand eight hundred and eighty ."""• 

Signed, sealed, and delivered in presence of 

Advertisement prepared expressly for Messrs. CusHMAN Bros. & Co., Boston, Philadelphia, and 
Chicago. Must be set in double or triple column. The above unique form can with propriety be used by 
any line of trade. The space occupied by " Window Shades, etc.," can extend to any length. 



Be he American, or Irish, or English, or Dutch, or anything else; if he 
IS A Judge of Tobacco, 

He buys Buchanan & Lyall's celebrated brands. There isnt a first-class To- 
bacconist IN America who can run shop without them. The principal office 
IS at 101 Wall Street, New York City. 

.Advertisement made up expressly for Messrs. Buchanan & Lyall, New York, illustrating the most 
marked contrast. The little type (Nonpareil Lining Gothic), by contrasting minuteness is conspicuous, and 
the black trade-mark is also. by contrast, literally staring. A trade-mark like it once seen is seldom forgotten; 
it is business, and fortunate is the house which invents so plain yet effective a trade-mark, which, in various 
sizes, should be used in nearly every advertisement, and in most of the commercial printing. On wocd 
mcluding drawing, costs about $5.00; photo-engraved, including drawing, about ^4.00. 


••Think not that clothes will nmke a man, yet how they help." 


There arc folks so knocked-kneed, so bow-legged, so crooked-backed, that 
only the e.xpert tailor can fit 'em. These men are scarce; so are Apollos; but 
America's sons average well ; and ninety-nine and nine-tenths per cent, of them 
will receive perfect fits from out our extensive stock. 

Now to business : We are manufacturers, wholesalers, and retailers of 

Always advanced styles of American and foreign fabrics — the best from each. 

Our own workmen in our qwn workshops do the cutting and the making. We 
personally watch each detail, and we don't forget that the better the article the 
better the trimming; no poor articles, so no poor trimmings. 

Goods always warranted to us ; we warrant them again, after we prove tin.' 
first warrant by testing. 

The fit. If the customer is fitable, our clothes fit him, and do it well. Some 
folks we can't fit, nor can anybody. 

Fit as well as custom-made? In ninety-nine per cent, of the cases, yes, and 
that's about the proportion of ready-made wearers comjiared with tailor-made folks. 

The price ? How much the wearer saves ! We don't advertise goods less than 
cost, simply because we calculate to make a profit on what we sell. Do you know 
of anybody who doesn't, whether they acknowledge it or not ? There are different 
kinds of profits, some close to one hundred per cent., some more tlian tliat. Our 
profits are small, taken individually ; small profits, and many of them, benefit 
alike customer and maker. There is no reason why any one can undersell us, and 
no one does. 

You are welcome. We'll sell you a car-load, or a bundle, or a suit, or a part 

of one. 

Invitingly yours. 

Spitz Bros. & Mork 

508 Washington St.. 5 Bedford St., 


Sample of advertisement prepared for Messrs. Spitz Bros. & Mork, illustrating form of the personal 
letter style ot advertisement, arranged in jiaragraphs. Sliould occupy not less than 12 inclies single 
column, or 6 inches double column. Looks well in double or single column. Would be much improved if 
in space large enough to admit of reading matter set in type twice or more as large as above. 



Nothing on Earth Will Make Hens Lay 


Absolutely pure and highly concentrated. Strictly a medicine, to be given in the food 
once daily in small doses. Prevents and cures all diseases of hens. Worth its weio-ht 
in gold when hens are moulting, and to keep them healthy. Testimonials sent free 'by 
mail. Ask your druggist, grocer, general store, or feed dealer for it. If you can't get 
it, send at once to us 

HfHS L4y 

We will send postpaid by mail as follows : A new, enlarged, elegantly illustrated copy 
of the " Farmers' Poultry-Raising Guide," price 25 cents, tells how to make money 
with a few hens, and two small packages of powder, for 60 cents ; or, one large i]i lb. 
can and Guide, $1.20. Sample package of Powder, 25 cents ; five for $1.00. "six lar-e 
cans, express prepaid, for $5.00. Send stamps or cash * 



Advertisement made up expressly for Messrs. I. S. Johnson & Co., Boston, illustrating trade-mark 
display and shaded rule work A short, comprehensive line like the above, by use becomes a trade-mark of 
the article advertised, and if the words are well chosen and conspicuously engraved, the line is often fully as 
effective as artistic and ornamental combinations. On wood, including drawing, costs about S6 ; photo- 
engraved, including drawing, about ^4. => ai t > f ^^^ 


ABOUT A Dl 'ER 1 ISL \ G. 




Unceasini;ly at it — wiitiujj, 
writing, writing — good writing, 
liiid writing, worse writing — 
sometimes can read it when it's 
warm, seldom when it's cold 
— sometimes the receiver can 
translate it — sometimes he can't 
— waste of time, waste of labor at 
both ends. The pen is old-fash- 
ioned — the progressive business 
man, the intelligent professional 
man, the live clerk, and the 

modern student type-write ; some 
40,000 of 'em use the World 
Typewriter. A wonderful 
little machine, as simple as a 
primer, yet strong, durable, prac- 
tical ; and any one can with prac- 
tice easily write thirtj'-tive words 
a minute. Single-Case World 
costs .? 10.00, Double -Case 
World, which writes seventy-two 
characters, .S15.00. Live agents 



Wakers of Columbia Bicycles and Tricycles. 

Advertisement written expressly for Pope Mfg. Co., Boston, illustratint; artistically set newspaper adver- 
tisement. Should occupy not less than 6 inclics single, or 4 Indies double column. Looks well in nuich 
larger space. The cut on wood costs, including drawing, about Si 2 ; photo-engraved, not including original 
drawing, about ^1.50. 

SAMPLES. ,-,- 


_o_o ooooooooooooo ooooo ~^~^~^J ^£JJ^^I^J~^ 


Wholesale Boot, Shoe, and Rubber House in the country which does not employ 
travelling salesmen, consequently there can be but one 


which sells goods at cost, or rather, at bill prices. It is known 


as Winch Bros., wholesale dealers and jobbers in Boots, Shoes, and Rubbers 
Nos 130 134, and 136 Federal Street, Boston, Mass. In open defiance to con! 
ventional selling methods it continues tradeful, with a great volume of business. 


without talk and salesmen's expenses, depending upon the quality of the goods, 


to do the business. The only drummers are quality, one price, progression, and 
OrUMMER' '' ''''^''^"'' ^''^ '° everybody, entitled "THE LITTLE 

The above advertisement, written expressly for Messrs W.Nru Ro^= ^( n . 
arrangement of catch-lines and interveninz readin? i,v,tV..f u i u ■ °^-' ,°^ Boston, illustrates an 

story briefly, irrespective of the substance ma t<?r UK 7'" ^^ "°""^' "^^' '^'^ catch-lines tell the 
column, or four inches of double coumn ™ 1 1 t?i 1 7 • """^l^ 'ff .''^^" ^'^ '"^''« "^ ^'"^'^ 
Looks well set in either heavy or light-fTed type' catch-hnes should be in same size of type. 






The Agency was established Sept. 1, 1886, by 
Mr. E. C. Dayis, the former publisher cf the Yankee Blade 
and Boston Sunday Times. On July 1, 1887, Mr. H. B. 
Humphrey, of one of the largest and oldest agencies of 
Boston, and more recently of the Boston Daily Post, assumed 
the management. Mr. Humphrey gives personal attention 
to the details of the business, and from experience and 
natural aptitude has achieved a reputation as an expert 
on all that pertains to extensive advertising, accompanied 
with originality, honest shrewdness, and conscientiousness 
to the advertiser's interest. His familiarity with news- 
papers and magazines, and his unique style of writing 
advertisements, notably the striking identity cf the " Ply- 
mouth Rock Pants" announcements, which are mostly a 
product of his inventive skill, have given to him interna- 
tional reputation. Mr. Humphrey's personal services are 
at the disposal of anybody who has goods to sell to people 
anywhere, and want a part cf the country, the whole of 
the country, or the world, to know it. 

Businessly everybody's, 


The above announcement, written espfcially for the Dnvis Advertising Agency, of Boston, illiislr.iles .iltractive 
form business letter advertisement. Engraving in the corner adapted to letter, note, and bill-heads, high-class circulars- 
Can be used in advertisements in well-printed papers. Should not occupy less space than size of note-paper. Wood- 
cut of engraving costs about $20.00. Photo-engraving, irrespective of original drawing, costs about $2.00. 



%% % 

80/ % 

/Q % 

%% '' % 

0/ 0/ 0/ 0/ 0/ 0/ 0/ 0/ 0/ 0/ 0/ 0/ 
/O '0 /(I A> /o /o /o /o /o 10 /o /o 

8 % 1 1 THE WINNER INVESTMENT CO. + | 8 % 

% ^ %% 

80/ %% 
/ %% 
/o %% 

% ^ V/o 


. + -f ^ ^ ^. ^. 4. .J. ^j, ^ H^ ^ J. .;. ^J ^5 ,.j ^j ..J .;j .J ^j .;j j_ ^ ^ ^ ^ _^ ^ ^ ^ ^^ ^ 


T- T- T^ ^ r r f- -.K -4,- tp •,•.- -<.- ■3- -n-- -,•? «- -i^ ■*• sj- 4- .^ + .^ J, ^ .^ .^ 4. h^ ^^ ^ ^ 

* * «• * ?;? -5:- » ^:- .;:;. ^i ^:. ^:. ^ tg .^. ^. ^j. 

^ •$ 'Si; $ <$ 4^ $ $- ^ ^ $. {^. {J;. !V. .jj j;;. .;:;. 

-* * -^ * ^ * 

* Guarantees ^ 


•^ ^- 

..),, of Mortgages .,, 

•S- Based on .;h. 

■* Actual •S- 

Selling Price 

#. of Property. ^^ 

^. ^. .;!;. ^!j ..jj 

Trust Deeds ^" 

To Purchaser. ^ 



Of all the wonderful towns in the West, none has 
attracted more attention in the East than Kansas City. 
I think I am not wrong in saying that it is largely tiie 
product of Eastern energy and capital, and that its 
closest relations have been with Boston. I doubt if 
ever a new town was, from the start, built up so solidly 
or has grown more substantially. The situation, at 
the point where the Missouri River makes a sharp bend 
to the East and the Kansas River enters it, was lono- 
ago pointed out as the natural centre of a great tradet 
Long before it started on its present career it was the 
great receiving and distributing point of South- Western 
commerce, which left tiie iMissouri River at this point 
for Santa Fe and other trading marts in the South- West. 
Aside from the river advantages, if one studies the 
course of streams and the incline of the land in a wide 
circle to the Westward, lie is impressed with the fact 
that the natural business drainage of a vast area is 
Kansas City. The city, therefore, was not fortuitously 
located, and when railways centred there, they obeyed 
an inevitable law. Here nature intended, in the devel- 
opment of the country, a great city.— Charles Dud- 
ley Warner. 

-};• -^f- ■♦■ * •^ ^ 

* SURPLUS, ■*■ 


•ir -^ ^ .^ 

-f.- -'■- + '\t ^- .^ 

"■■ Mortgages "^ 
•'i' Bear -^ 

-•p Certificate of 4«. 
.li American j, 
^ Loan & Trust 
' Co., of Boston, ' 
"" that 25% face ■*" 
"•■ value is -ii*- 
-\t covered by .;;;. 
.;;. deposit. _|^ 

-j:- * ^ -t- --^ -i- 

80/ % 
/o % 


"T President, 

-f- Kansas City, Mo. 

X William H. Parmenter, + 
X General Agent, -j- 

X 50 State St., Boston, Mass. -j- 

% ^ %% 

80/ %% 
/o %% 

r..,.'^''T"'T^"' """"" -"f ^"^^ ^^'i^NER Investment Co., of Kansas City, illustrating combination of 



IF Yo\/ i/$E CVTi 




Sample of genuine advertisement of Messrs. H. C. Wiiitcomb & Co., of Boston. One of the best of 
effective business designs, at once striking and conipreliensive, illustrating the business. The more white 
space around it, the more it stands out. Cost to engrave on wood, including drawing, about ?i2.oo; 
photo-engraved, not including drawing, about ^1.50. Single electrotypes of above cost about 30 cents/ in 
quantities, as low as 20 cents each. 


An ever flowing stream of warmth^ 


Vc}^ Furrjace^ 

3'^t i^ CditCt) the Kohler Patent Wrought Iron Radiating Surface Hot-Air Furnace; 
a long name, but not as long as its reputation. 

511 fCtD tUOrtJ^ about it. The best material, of course, and the greatest strength 
resulting. The radiator of No. 12 gauge wrought iron; joints perfect, firmly 
riveted, bolted together like in a steam boiler; gas tight, puttyless, cementless, 

5fin itlbCjCtf D COtlE set in centre of cylinder, hanging over fire. Direct draft by 
tube passing through cone. Indirect draft by closing damper in tube, driving 
draft upward between cylinder and cone, then through small pipes at top of 
radiator, connecting with tube above damper. 

^EbCrp itlCl) of radiator heated equally. Self cleaning, for not a horizontal piece 
about it. Draft further governed by up and down pipe. Cut-off damper and 

^b30 CbflpOlTfltinj tanks. Dust flue prevents dust in cellar. Biggest clinkers 
instantly removable. Set of fine grates sift ashes. Easy to shake. 

<(r0irt)tdlip inbitCt)^ — everybody; especially architects, builders, stove men, to 
visit factory to inspect details of manufacture. 

^Idtmtt) that modern science of heating has not produced a better furnace, perhaps 
not another so good. 

^ubistantiateti, — aii claims. 

#f iUljOm? A. KOHLER & CO., 85 Union Street, Boston; Factory, 143 to 153 
Vernon Street. 

Advertisement written for Messrs. A. Kohler & Co., of Boston, illustrating a form of semi-personal 
letter style, with Old English side heads. To display well, should not occupy less than ten inches of single, 
or five inches of double, column. 




Adve rtising S igns, 


The above is a fac-simile of the advertisement of Mr. A. T. Bond, of Boston, Mass. Mr. Bond nses it 
in all his advertisements and printed matter. , It is to the point, distinct, original, complete, and tells the 
whole story at a glance. The more space around it the more it stares one in the face. 




Dennison's Tourists' Tags for Travellers, Gummed 
Labels, Gummed Paper of all colors, 
Legal and Notanal Seals, Fold- 
ing and Fancy Tickets, Ment- 
zel's Patent Suspension 
Rings, The Star 

Dennison's Game Counters, Wedding Cake Boxes, 
Visiting and Playmg Cards, etc. Sealing Wax 
Makers. Paper Targets for Rifle Prac- 
tice, Phillips' Hook and Clasp 
Tags, Kimball's Self- 
Fastening Tickets, 
Postal En- 




Paper Fasten- 
ers, at Manufacturers' 
Discounts. Colored Tissue 
Papers and Flower Papers, Pro- 
prietors of " Silver White," Best Article 
for Polishing Silver, and Miller's "Jewelry 
Cleaning Casket" and "Silver White Casket." 

Boxes, Jewelers' 
Cards, Pink and 
White Cotton, Fine Twines, 
etc. Druggists' Boxes, Apotheca- 
ries' Powder Papers and Shaving Papers. 
Dennison's Absorbent Cotton, for Dental 
and Surgical Purposes Japanese Napkins. 








Advertisement made up expressly for Den nison Mfg. Co., illustrating how can be reconstructed an 
over-crowded advertisement, to be attractive and comprehensive, and come within the easy scope of the 
average newspaper composing room. 









136 State Street, Boston. 

The above advertisement, set up for Messrs. Curtis Davis & Co., of Boston, shows how conspicuous 
may be three lines of type, arranged with a trade-mark design. The design in the centre, incUiding the 
lettering close to it, can be cut on wood, including drawing, for about ^7 ; or photo-engraved, not including 
the original drawing, for about ^1.50. 












18 & 20 Dock Sq., 30 Faneuil Hall Sq., Boston. 

C. A. BURDITT. JOSEPH WILLrAMS. , . „,,,uo^c- 


It''LnnfeLc?;roSdn^^^^^^^^^ ^: ^, of Boston, 

type. The matter contained in it should no toccupvTess than^^^^^^^^^ 'T ""? ""' °^. °"" ''>'^ "^ 

to any depth of single or double column. ^^ '°"' ""^''" "^ "'"S'^ ^°'""^"' ^"d can e.xtend 





You have been there, so has everybody ; 'tisn't pleasant. Reseat the chair with Harwood 
Fibre. Anybody can do it. Send paper pattern. 

Portable Asseinl)lv Chairs, for Halls, Churches, Vestries, Lodge Rooms, Offices. 
Correspondence solicited. Circulars free. 

HARWOOD MFG. CO., 91 Summer St., Boston, Mass. 

Sample of illustrated advertisements prepared for Hakwood Mic;-Co., Boston. Needs twice as niucli 
space, in which much more reading matter would be allowable. Small ensraving costs, in wood, including 
drawing, about f -j ; photo-engraved, including drawing, about ?3. Will print anywhere. Large engraving 
costs, on wood, including drawing, about ^15 ; photo-engraved, not including drawing, about ^2.50. Will 
print fairly well anywhere. 



TJjG stuff \ron) wtjicl^ all art i5 rrjadc' 




Of Gvery DG5cnptior). 

Arcl^jtccts' 5uppHes, Gi^girjGcrs^ Draugl^tsn^ep's, arjd 
Surveyors^ tr)$irun)cr)t<,, 

50IC Agei;t5 itp Urjitcd States for bevy^5 Blue Procc^^ Papers. 

Catalogue Free. 



37 Corr)I;)ill, Bostor), jVlass. 

Advertisement arranged for Messrs. Frost & Adams, Boston, illustrating artistic arrangement of one 
^^4i:ls^n^e^;spipt;rcarry°"^' ^^"^"^^"'^'' ^^ ^^^^'^^^'^'^ '^P^' ^^^ "^ °^ "^ '^-^ ornaSaTLlr 






Plypll) HoGk $3# Pauls, 

OVERCOATS, $12.00; FULL SUITS. S13.25. 


—^>~\s to— f^ 





11- to 17 ELIOT ST. 
and 18 SUIVl?vIER ST. 


285 Broadway, New York. 
Gilmore House, Springfield, Mass. 
Butler Exchange, Providence, R. I. 

Burnside Building, "Worcester, Mass. 
60 Market St., Lynn, Mass. 
Register Building, New Haven, Ct. 


Secret of Success: Quality of goods; correct and stylish fit; and advertising in 
plain, strong, short language, business facts. Established Feb., iSS6; small room, three 
hands. Now, 28 1 hands. New building occupying 22,000 square feet floorage. All work 
custom-made. Largest tailoring establishment in the United States; largest shippers by 
express, and second largest receivers of mail in New England; largest shippers of mer- 
chandise in the country. Have filled over 300,000 orders. 

Combination of display and reading matter advertisement. Should occupy not less than six inches single 
column ; looks better in double column. The engraving will look well in poorly-printed newspapers. 

Manufacturers, Jobbers, Retailers, 



For Fine Trade. 



For Wholesale and Retail Trade. 

Sample advertisement written for Messrs. Lamson & Hubbard, of Boston, illustrating trade-mark 
combination advertisement. The type matter set in series of Antique Roman. The above design would cost 
to cut on wood about ^25, and can be photo-engraved, including original drawing, for about f^j^. A photo- 
engraving reduction to one-half size would cost about $2. The reduced cut could be used upon ail of the 
firm's stationery, and in many of the newspaper advertisements, if the paper was well printed. 






J. T. SMITH & CO. 

"Warerooms 222 to 228 Devonshire Street. 

Manufactory • 2170 to 2178 Washington Street. 


Advertisement made up expressly for Messrs. J. T. Smith & Co., IJoston, ilhistratinj; plam standmg 
business advertisement, set entirely in Antique Roman type series. The enRravrng would cost, on wood, 
about Sis.oo; photo-engraved, not including original drawing, about ^.^oo. W. 1 print we l in almost any 
newspaper. The cut not only is effective as illustrative of the carriage business, but from the peculiarity of 
the vehicle pictured. 

JVtai^ufacturcrs^ Certificate ai^d Warrai^ty. 

This is to certify, that pianoforte 



FROM nATR^^W'''^' manufactured by us and is warranted for the term of FIVE YEARS 
th^?hL? fi /r ^"^ "^1^*^,^" ^o'-kmanship, material, or performance, under fair usatje durCig 

dampnels exceed ' "' "^'^ °""'''" responsible, the effects of extreme heat and cold o? 


<^ <^. .^tj^ ^ <^. 




%\t ^^tti torh ©rikti^. 

NEW YORK, APRIL 24, 1888. 

Our manufacturers can therefore justly claim to lead the world in 
this department of mechanical skill. As an illustration may be 
cited the house of C. C. Briggs & Co., Boston, the popularity of 
whose instruments is due to the ar.plication of scientific principles 
of construction. While old notions may be respected so long as 
they are of value, advancement would be retarded by excessive 
conservatism. The Briggs piano has been praised by many com- 
peteut j udges. 

Advertisement prepared expressly for the Briggs Piano, illustrating combination of reproduction of 
certificate and newspaper squib, and brief business card. Must occupy double column, not less space tl,an 
above, upwards to any size of space. ^ 




DDufCD 111 sssss m 

1)1) I'd 111 ss 

i> 111 


1)1) t^D 111 
DDDi^D 111 


SSS 111 

ss 111 

sssss 111 



Antiseptic and Deodorizer. 
Instantaneous and Odorless. 

For Universal Use. 

Destroys and Prevents Bad 
Smells, Cholera, Fever, 

Bronchitis, Diphtheria, Sniall- 
Pox, etc. 

Does not Stain or Injure Per- 
sons or Fabrics. 

Superior to Carbolic Acid or 

Chloride of Lime, and 

has no equal. 

Cheap, Harmless, Clean, Rapiil, 
Effective, Sure. 

A Household Necessity. 

No family should be without it. 










A A A A 


A. A. A A 








111 NN N FF 

















































A A .\A 





N V N N 




For Private and Public Places. 

Ill Fish and Provision .Stores, 

Cellars, Night-Chair.s, 

Sinks, Vaults, 

Urinals, Drains, Water Closets, 
Markets, Steamers, 

Slaughter-Houses, Stables, Pig- 
Sties, Sheep and Cattle 

Railroad Cars, Breweries, Dis- 
tilleries, Barrels. 

Price, 50 Cents per Bottle. 

For sale by Druggists and 

Sold in Bottles, Jugs, Kegs, 
and Barrels. 

Prices furnished on application. 














Advertisement written and arranged expressly for the Egyptian Chemical Co., Boston. Set entirely 
in Nonpareil type. Will look better set in much more space. Must be in double column. The combination 
letters stand out more distinctly at a distance. Will print well anywhere. 



the Cars of the Broadway and Seventh Avenue, Third Avenue, Belt Line, and 
the Cable Cars of New York City. 

Nearly ONE-TWENTIETH of the population of the United States live in and 
around New York City, and use the HORSE CARS frequently and constantly. 


■^T*- S we are often asked how much advertising in Horse Cars can be secured in New York City for a 
/\ given expenditure we submit below i)ro[.osals for advertising, which we will lurnisli for various 
J JLj funis. Those desiring to spend smaller amounts will tiud it to their interest to advertise on only 
one or two lines. 


For ?t)00 we will put one panel each in 120 cars for 1 year, dl.stribnted a.s follows: 

Kroadwav, 30 cars. Third Avenue, 50 cars. Seventli Avenue, 14 cars. Belt I.ine, 36 cars. 

These cars carry DURING this period, 15,400,000 passengers. 


For $T20 we will put one panel each in 144 cai-s for 1 year, distributed as follows: 
lUoadway, 25 cars. Third Avenue. GO cars. Seventh Avenue, 15 cars. Belt Line. 44 cars. 

These cars carry during this period, 18,720,000 passengers. 


For S90?) we will put one panel each in 180 cars for 1 year, distributed as follows: 
Broadway, 30 cars. Third Avenue, 72 cars. Seventh Avenue, 18 cars. Belt Line, GO cars. 

These cars carry during this period, 23,400,000 passengers. 


For gl.sno we will put one i)anel each in 240 cars for 1 year, distributed as follows: 
Broadway, 40 cars. Third Avenue, 9G cars. Seventh Avenue, 24 cars. Belt Line, 80 cars. 

These cars carry during this PEUIOD, 31,200,000 passengers. 


For )?1.500 wp will put one panel each in 300 cars for I year, distributed as follows; 

Broadway, 50 cars. Third Avenue, 130 cars. Seventh Avenue, 30 cars. Belt Line, lOO cars. 

These cars carry during this period, 39,(MM>,000 passengers. 

The foregoing figures are given for illustration. It often occurs that we are short of space on some 
one or more lines. In such case we arrange the nearest to above distribution we can, considering the 
wishes of our patrons. Rates for any single line furnished upon application. 

CHAS. K:. HArvlNlITX & CO. 


The above genuine advertisement is an excellent sample of a crowded advertisement without material loss 
of effectiveness. When necessary to force abundance of matter into small space, let tlie head and catch lines 
be particularly prominent and clear, and tell in themselves a part of the story ; the intervening lines to be set 
in small and generally unleaded type. 


Here since '58. 


Silver-Plated Ware, 

Swiss and iVmerican 

Watches ^^^ Watch Cases. 

Importers and Wholesale Dealers. 

M. T. Ouimby & Co. 

14 Hanover St., Boston, Mass 

Advertisement arranged expressly for Messrs. M. T. Ooimby & Co., Boston. With exception of top 
line, set entirely in type of same series. Similar effect would be given if set in series of other faces. Should 
occupy double column. 




A YO JJ '** business f Do you expect to he ? 
= Are you ambitious? Do you read? 

J^jp" ^0 You should most emphatically he a 

reader of a paper puhlished to fit 

the requirements of your ease. 

The JBooh-Keeper 

A live, ha7idsome eight-page 
monthly journal, is an exponent of the hest modern business methods, and 
should he read by any and every one in any way connected with business 
or business affairs. 

To the young man who is anxious to make his business life a suc- 
cess, THE BOOK-KEEPER will be found invaluable. 

Subscription price, 50 cents per year. Sample copies free. 

THE BOOKKEEPER CO,, Publishers, 


i^^ A copy of our " wonderful book,'" a handy office manual, con- 
taining actually one million facts and fifty full-page colored maps, will 
be sent free to all new subscribers who mention where they saw this 

Sample of genuine announcement of " The Book-Keeper," of Detroit, Mich., set in modern italic, to 
occupy space of not less than 5 inches double, or 8 inches single, column. Corner silhouette engraving will 
show up well with any quality of printing. Wood-cut ot it, includmg drawing, costs about §3; photo- 
engravmg, including drawing, about ^2.50. Will also look well set in single column. 


Pork, Live ^"^ 

Beef, Dressed 

Lard, Hogs, 

Hams, Pure 

Bacon, Lard. 

Pure Pepsin. 

Special Attention F*aid. to Orders for Export. 


CHARLES H. NORTH. Packcrs aHcl Ciirers, ^ ''^""^^ skilto.n. 


Advertisement arranged for Messrs Charles H. North & Co., Boston, illustrating series of indented 
headings, and Antique and Old Style Roman type. Should occupy not less than 6 inches of single column ; 
looks better in double column ; can extend to any length of space. 




sS< ^^^^^y. 


Travel, Sport, or Business, 



'^v&9^4^ Insurance 

^, CoN^- j ^OMPANY . 

r-j I > ^ij^o^-- ' ORIGINAL 





BEST OF Life Companies. 

Lowest Rates Consistent with Securitj. 

Its RESouRGErrav A^g.l^E^ 

the most enormous mass of claims that 
even great railroad and steamboat acci- 
dents call bring upon it. PAYS ALL 
CLAIMS, without discount, immedi- 
atelj- on receipt of satisfactory proofs 
provisions in all its policies. 

PAID policy -holders" $15,500,000. 

Assets, $9,847,000. 

Su rplus. $ 1,944,000. 

JOHN E. MORRIS, A«s't Sec. 

X X 

X X X X X X 

When two brands of the same sort of 
goods are selling side by side in the market, 
one bringing double the price of the other, 
what is it that enables the former to find 
sale? Always, because it is wortli that 
much more ; because it will wear longer, do 
better service while it lasts, keep one satis- 
fied with his purchase instead of kicking 
himself for a fool all the time he has it, be 
reliable at the sharpest emergency instead 
of liable to give out just when it is needed 
most. And the concern dealing in such 
goods has to charge more for them, because 
it costs more to make them. That is exactly 
why The Travelers charges more for its 
Accident Policies than its competitors, why 
they are worth more, and why it can get 
more and do a greater business than they 
despite its higher rates. The rates are the 
lowest that permanent surety of paying all 
claims when due will justify. It [)aid claim- 
ants about $1,400,000 in 1887, and has 
paid them over .SIS.OOO.OOO altogether. 
" Moral : Insure in The Travelers." 




. . . . AND PRINTING . . . . 


• • • • OUTLINE OR ARTISTIC CUTS. . • • . 


//orr/son c5i^an 
cS>^ephen J- Mou/fon 

Hall Market 

T E i_ E: f= •— ' O rvl E CO i^ rxi E CT I Or^ 

The above is a sample of our imitation of lithograi)liic work, a method 
resultintr in beautiful effect without the expense of lithography 



227 Tremont Street, Boston, Mass. 

Advertisement prepared expressly for Boston Engraving Co. The engraved design costs about ?i2, and 
must be printed carefully with good ink on good paper or card. Work of this class is recommended to those 
who desire an ine.xpensivc substitute for steel or copper-engraving, or lithography. Plates, similar in size, 
but engraved for newspaper or ordinary commercial printing cost considerably less. 




Can use 

any form 

or size 

of slug, 

Brass or Steel. 


Slugs more 


better, and 

much cheaper 

than by hand. 

Fastest running. 

How much a man is like his shoes ! 

For instance, both a soul may lose; 

Both have been tanned; both are made 
tight — 

By cobblers ; both get left and right. 

Both need a mate to be complete ; 

And both are made to go on feet. 

They both need heeling; oft are sold, 

And both in time will turn to mould. 

With shoes the last is first ; with men 

The first shall be the last ; and when 
The shoes wear out they're mended new ; 
When men wear out they're men dead too! 
They both are tread upon, and both 
Will tread on others, nothing loth. 
Both have their ties, and both incline, 
When polished, in the world to shine ; 
And both peg out. Now, would you choose 
To be a man or be his shoes ? 

Will slug 

800 to 1200 

pairs a day. 

A perfect heel. 

Seat nailer. 

Uses continuous 


steel or 

iron wire. 

Cuts off nails 




O. E. LEWIS, Manager. 


Advertisement arranged expressly, for the Wire-Grip Fastening Co., Boston, illustrating 
It of bix-to-Pica brass rules, enclosing heavy-face type. " 


East, North, and West. 

North- West and South- West, 

General Expressing^ : 

Quick Time. Prompt Delivery. Posi- 
tive Security. Through Package Trunk 
System. Reasonable Tariffs. Over 
36,000 Miles of Railway. 6,000 Agen- 

Foreig'n Department: 

Speed. Safety. Economy. To England, 
Scotland, Ireland, Germany, France, 
Belgium, Australia, India, China, Japan, 
New Zealand, Costa Rica, and elsewhere. 

Money Orders: 

Absolutely Safe. Convenient. Cash- 
able in over 10,000 Places. Bankable. 
Provisions for Identifying Strangers. 
Lost Orders Refunded. Low Rates. 

Trading* by Express: 

A Great Public Convenience. No 
Charge except Ordinary Rates for Car- 
riage. No Invasion of Local Mercan- 
tile Interests. 

American Express Company. 

Advertisement prepared for American Express Company, illustrating form of indented catch-lines, 
with explanatory matter, set entirely in Modern Roman series. Should be set in double column. 



/V corjstarjt jlow of writirjg-irjk.'' 

The to-be-dipped pen is old-fashioned. The progressive business 
man, the intelligent professional man, the live clerk, the economical 
student, everybody realizes that at least ten per cent, of the time is 
wasted in dipping the pen. 

Tl?e peerless ?our)imr) Pet) 

is a Perfect Fourjtair) Perj. 



A strong statement, and a true one. No skipping or dropping of ink. 
Always ready. Continuous flow of ink. 16-K gold pen. 

Gvery Pet) Fully Quarai;)teed. 

Illustrated catalogue and price-list free. 


Advertisement prepared for the Cross "Pen Company, Boston, illustrating antique display with plain 
Roman type reading matter. Must occupy double column. Cut costs on wood, including drawing, about 
^10 ; photo-engraved, not including drawing, about $2. 


" They speak a various language." 

Author's Corrections. — The correc- 
tions or changes made in proof by the 
author. If of considerable number they 
will be charged for by the time occupied 
in making them, generally at the rate of 
fifty cents an hour. 

Author's Proof. — Proof sent to the 

Bad Copy. — Manuscript difficult to read. 
Write proper names with great care. 

Bastard Type. — Type which has a face 
larger or smaller than its regular body ; 
as Minion size face on Brevier body, 
or Brevier size face on Minion body. 

Blank Line. — Space between two para- 
graphs the depth of a line of the type 
in which the page is set. 

Body. — The metal which supports the 
face of a type. 

Body-Type. — That class of type generally 
used for the reading matter in news- 
papers and books. 

Book Paper. — One of the general terms 
given to paper of various size, quality, 
and finish, to distinguish it from com- 
mon grades called news paper. The 
standard size, and the one mostly used 

for books, is 25x38 inches. A half 
sheet is 19x25 inches. 

Brass Rule. — Strips of brass, type high, 
the face printing a straight line, or a 
double line, or various ornamental 

Break Line. — A short line; the end of a 

Caps. — Capital letters. 

Chase. — The iron frame which holds the 
type while being printed. 

Clean Proof. — Proof requiring few 

Close Matter. — Matter containing but 
few break lines or blank lines, and 
having no leads between the lines. 

Composing Stick. — That in which type 
is set. 

Composition. — The setting of type into 
words, and arranging them into lines, 
etc. Also a term applied to the material 
of which the inking rollers are made. 

Copy. — A term applied to the manuscript, 
print, or design handed the printer. 

Cuts. — The printer's term for all engrav- 
ings used for illustrations. 



Display. — The prominence given to 
certain words in the body of a work by 
using heavier faced type. The arrange- 
ment of lines in various shapes and 
lengths, with different sizes and faces of 
type, as is customary in job work or 

Duodecimo. — Half sheet of book paper, 
(19x25 inches), folded into twelve 
leaves (twenty-four pages), makes a 
book called Duodecimo. i8mo., iS 
leaves, 36 pages. 24/;w., 24 leaves, 
48 pages. 

Electrotype. — A duplicate of type 
matter or engraving made into a solid 
body. The surface of an electrotype is 
copper under-filled with type metal. 

Em. — The square of a type body. The 
cost of reading matter composition is 
reckoned on the basis of ems. 

Fat. — Applies to leaded or other matter 
which is open and easy to set. 

Folio. — Half sheet of book paper (19x25 
inches), folded into two leaves (four 
pages), makes a book called Eoh'o. 
Also applied to running number of 
pages in a book. 

FooT-NoTE. — Printed matter at the 
bottom of the page, usually set in small 
type preceded by a reference mark, 
corresponding with a similar mark in 
the text. 

FOR.M. — A page of type, or a series of 
pages, securely tightened in a chase, 
ready for the press or the electrotyper. 

Galley. — An oblong movable tray on 
which the type is deposited after it is 

Galley Proofs are generally the first 
proofs furnished in book or catalogue 

Half Sheet. — Referring to book paper 
signifies a sheet 19x25 inches. 

Imposixg.— Arranging type matter for the 

Indextatiox.— The space at the com- 
mencement of a paragraph. 

Job Prixtixg. — Generally applied to 
small commercial work as distinct from 
book or large catalogue pMnting. 

Leaded Matter. — Typeset with leads 
between the lines. 

Leaders. — Dots or hyphens placed at 
intervals to guide the eye between two 

Leads. — Thin strips of metal cast to 
various thicknesses, for spacing between 
lines. The leads in common use are 
called Six-/o-Picz; that is, six leads 
occupy the space of the depth of one 
Pica line, or thirty-six to the inch. 

Leax. — Type set close and solid. 

Lean Type. — Thin type. 

Letter Press. — Printing from movable 

Live Copy. — Manuscript waiting to be 
set in type. 

Lower Case. — Type case containing 
small letters, figures, etc. Also applied to 
small letters in general. 

Matrix. —The mould of a type. 

Matter. — L/ve matter, type set to be 
printed. Standing matter, type held to 
be used again. Dead matter, type to 
be distributed. 

MoDERX RoMAX. — Reading matter type 
generally of slightly heavier face than 
Old Style Roman. 

Ms. — Manuscript. 

Octavo. — Half sheet of book paper 
(19x25 inches), folded in eight leaves 



( sixteen pages ), makes a book called 

Old Style Roman. — Reading matter 

type of generally light or open face. 
Open Matter. — Matter with many par- 
agraphs and wide spaces between the 

Patent Insides or Outsides. — 

Applied to tljat portion of some country 

newspapers which is printed at a central 

Pi. — Mixed up type. 
Plates. — Electrotypes or stereotypes. 
Press Work. — Printing. 
Quad [Quadrat]. — An en space or longer, 

used to fill out lines, and sometimes 

placed between words. 
Quarto. — Half sheet of book paper ( 19X 

25 inches ), folded into four leaves ( eight 

pages ), makes a book called Quarto. 
Reprint Copy. — Copy made up of 

printed matter. 
Revise. — Proof after corrections have 

been made. 
Roman Type. — Type used for reading 


Slug. — A thick lead. 

Small Caps. — Small capital letters. 

Solid. — Type set without leads. 

Spaces. — Blanks used between words. 

Stereotypes. — Duplicates of type mat- 
ter cast in a solid body. Stereotypes 
are cast from inferior type metal, and 
are not near as durable as electrotypes. 

Stet. — When written opposite an erro- 
neous correction in proof signifies that 
no attention is to be paid to that marked 

Stick-. — Composing stick. Also applies 
to about two inches depth of set-up 

Tr. — Transpose. 

Upper Case. — Type case containing 
capital and small capital letters, etc. 
Also applied to capital letters in general. 

One line drawn beneath words in copy signi- 
fies to be set in Italics j two lines, small 
capitals; three lines, CAPITALS. 

A circle drawn around numerals in news- 
paper copy signifies to be spelled out in